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Ulrike Lohmann

mass mixing ratios of sulfate, organic and black carbon, sub- and supermicron dust (0–1 μ m and 1–2 μ m), and sub- and supermicron sea salt (0–1 μ m and 1–10 μ m). Sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon are as described in Lohmann et al. (1999a) except that the exponential aging time, where a hydrophobic carbonaceous aerosol becomes hydrophilic, has been reduced to 24 h. Also, the in-cloud scavenging has been changed such that instead of following Giorgi and Chameides (1986) who assume a

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Carsten S. Frederiksen and Jorgen S. Frederiksen

emphasis is a comparison between the two-level results. January 1979 was a period of frequent and severe storm activity in the Northern Hemisphere and a time oftransition from high-latitude blocking over northwestern Canada and the Beaufort Sea area to persistent andlarge-scale blocking in the North Atlantic region. The three-dimensional instability modes from all models arediscussed in the context of these synoptic developments. In particular, it is found that the inclusion of a horizontallyvarying

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B. Ziv and P. Alpert

sites located at the southernCaspian Sea, along the Mediterranean and at the easternBlack Sea, covering a small portion of the entire domain. These areas are mainly over water bodies or atthe lee of mountain ridges. As suggested by many investigators (e.g., Mattocks and Bleck 1986; Tafferner1990; Stein and Alpert 1993), the lee cyclogenesis isa manifestation of a mountain ridge's blocking effecton air masses and their properties. Such areas are,therefore, supposed to attract approaching cyclones and

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Ming Bao and John M. Wallace

the clusters presented and discussed in previous studies. Motivated by these results, in section 4 we present a synoptic interpretation of the SOM clusters, with emphasis on composite 500-hPa height, 850-hPa temperature, and sea level pressure fields. In section 5 , we document their frequencies of occurrence, winter by winter, 1920–2014. Results are summarized and discussed in the final section. 2. Data and methods Three different reanalysis datasets are used in this study: The four

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Sebastian Schemm, Gwendal Rivière, Laura M. Ciasto, and Camille Li

1. Introduction Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) influence midlatitude atmospheric variability through hemispheric-spanning teleconnection patterns [ Exner 1914 ; Horel and Wallace 1981 ; Hurrell 1996 ; Trenberth et al. 1998 ; Trenberth and Caron 2000 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ; Ciasto and Thompson 2008 ; Frauen et al. 2014 ; Deser et al. 2017 ; and see extended reviews in Hoerling and Kumar (2002) and Stan et al. (2017) ]. The dominant mode of tropical Pacific SST

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George C. Craig and Suzanne L. Gray

-core vortices. This includes tropical cyclones but- also certain intensely convective polar lows and Mediterranean cyclones, which resemble tropical cyclonesand are believed to intensify by the same process (Rasmussen 1979, 1989; Rasmussen and Zick 1987). A useful starting point for describing the CISKmechanism is given by Ooyama ( 1982, section 4), whodescribes CISK as a cooperative intensification involving organized moist convection and the cyclone-scalevortex. Radiation, surface fluxes and other

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Bin Wang and Tianming Li

. A. Lander, A. M. Hori, and L. K. Oda, 1987: Tropicalmarine climatic atlas. Vol. 2, Pacific Ocean. Report UHMET87-02, Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 27 pp.Seager, R., 1991: A simple model of climatology and variability of the low-level wind field in the tropics. J. Climate, 4, 164-179.Tomasi, C., 1984: Vertical distribution features of atmospheric vapor in the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 89(D2), 2563-2566.Waliser, D. E

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Thomas J. Galarneau Jr. and Morris L. Weisman

: The tropical transition of the October 1996 Medicane in the western Mediterranean sea: A warm seclusion event . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 145 , 2575 – 2595 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-16-0474.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0474.1 Neiman , P. J. , and M. A. Shapiro , 1993 : The life cycle of an extratropical marine cyclone. Part I: Frontal-cyclone evolution and thermodynamic air–sea interaction . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 2153 – 2176 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<2153:TLCOAE>2.0.CO;2

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Yoshikazu Hayashi

properties of polarized components and rota tional invariants. Deep-Sea Res., 20, 1129-1141.Miiller, P., D. J. Olbers and J. Willebrand, 1978: The Inex spectrum. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 479-500.O'Brien, J. J., and R. D. Pillsbury, 1974: Rotary wind spectra ina sea breeze regime. J. Appl. Meteor., 13, 820-825.Perkins, H., 1972: Inertial oscillations in the Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res., 19, 289-296. Pratt, R. W., 1976: The interpretation of space-time spectral quantities. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1060

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Chun-Chih Wang and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

1. Introduction Tropical islands are hot spots for cumulus convection because of their strong perturbation of conditionally unstable airflow (e.g., Qian 2008 ; Smith et al. 2009 ). Under weak winds, the stronger daytime heating over land than over the surrounding sea destabilizes the island flow and gives rise to thermally direct circulations that promote vertical motion. These thermal circulations often collapse into sea breeze–land breeze fronts, with potent updrafts along and ahead of

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