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Hanqing Chen, Bin Yong, Weiqing Qi, Hao Wu, Liliang Ren, and Yang Hong

-only versions of IMERG and GSMaP, respectively ( Chen et al. 2020 ). Besides, these satellite-only precipitation products have not been corrected by ground-based observations relative to ground-adjusted satellite precipitation products (e.g., IMERG-Final and GSMaP-Gauge), avoiding the potential uncertainties caused by the overlap between evaluated SPPs and references. Both IMERG-Late and GSMaP-MVK merged several passive microwave (PMW) and infrared (IR) data for getting high-accuracy global precipitation

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Martin G. De Kauwe, Christopher M. Taylor, Philip P. Harris, Graham P. Weedon, and Richard. J. Ellis

) and downstream ( Spracklen et al. 2012 ) and on atmospheric circulations on scales of ten ( Anthes 1984 ) to thousands ( Charney 1975 ) of kilometers. In so-called land–atmosphere coupling hotspots ( Koster et al. 2004 ), predictions on daily to centennial time scales rely on a realistic depiction of land surface fluxes within numerical models. Given the strong sensitivity of fluxes to surface properties, in tandem with often substantial spatial variability and a lack of flux observations at the

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Zhongkun Hong, Zhongying Han, Xueying Li, Di Long, Guoqiang Tang, and Jianhua Wang

to merge high-quality precipitation data globally ( Beck et al. 2017a , 2019 ). However, the effective spatial resolution of MSWEP is relatively coarse in the TP, since the reanalysis (~80–150 km) component is the dominating component ( Beck et al. 2017a ). The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCP) data combine high-accuracy microwave observations and more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations to provide high-spatiotemporal-resolution precipitation products ( Adler et al. 2003

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Mu Xiao, Sarith P. Mahanama, Yongkang Xue, Fei Chen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

, . 10.1029/2002JD003174 Xue , Y. , B. A. Forman , and R. H. Reichle , 2018 : Estimating snow mass in North America through assimilation of advanced microwave scanning radiometer brightness temperature observations using the catchment land surface model and support vector machines . Water Resour. Res. , 54 , 6488 – 6509 , . 10.1029/2017WR022219

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

gridded parameter optimization) also relates to the spatial tradeoffs of satellite sensors, while the period of calibration relates to the satellite overpass return time. In the future, simultaneous development of Earth science technologies (e.g., microwave soil moisture sensors) and methodologies (e.g., thermal evapotranspiration retrievals) will warrant the LIS-OPT/UE approach in assessing the impact of observations on coupled forecasts for both calibration and data assimilation studies alike

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Mostafa Tarek, François P. Brissette, and Richard Arsenault

for light rainfall and snow precipitation as well as more frequent observations over the medium and high latitudes ( Hou et al. 2014 ). GPM utilizes passive microwave sensors in addition to the infrared measurements from geostationary satellites, providing rainfall monitoring around the globe with higher spatial and temporal resolutions than the previously widely used TMPA products ( Yong et al. 2015 ). These improvements are likely to provide significant advantages for hydrometeorological studies

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S. Chen, P. E. Kirstetter, Y. Hong, J. J. Gourley, Y. D. Tian, Y. C. Qi, Q. Cao, J. Zhang, K. Howard, J. J. Hu, and X. W. Xue

and Diop 2003 ; Hong and Adler 2007 ; Lebel et al. 2009 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Parkes et al. 2013 ). The first space-based precipitation radar (PR) was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in 1997. TRMM is a joint mission between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall. In addition to PR, other precipitation-related instruments include the TRMM Microwave

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

artifact of the assimilated observations as multiple fields in the global water budget become more stable in MERRA-2 during the same time frame as a result of the introduction of advanced microwave radiances ( Bosilovich et al. 2017 ). Noticeably suppressed counts of ARs occur in 1985, 1988, and 2014, all years with neutral ENSO or weak La Niña conditions. There is no indication that the frequency of ARs along the Washington coast has changed over time. Fig . 2. Time series of (a) the number of ARs

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H. Gao, E. F. Wood, T. J. Jackson, M. Drusch, and R. Bindlish

: Intercomparison of water and energy budgets for five Mississippi subbasins between ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) and NASA Data Assimilation Office fvGCM for 1990–1999. J. Geophys. Res , 108 . 8618, doi:10.1029/2002JD003127 . Bindlish, R. , Jackson T. J. , Wood E. F. , Gao H. , Starks P. , Bosch D. , and Lakshmi V. , 2003 : Soil moisture estimates from TRMM Microwave Imager observations over the Southern United States. Remote Sens. Environ , 85 , 507 – 515 . 10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00052-X

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