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Peter A. Bieniek, Uma S. Bhatt, Donald A. Walker, Martha K. Raynolds, Josefino C. Comiso, Howard E. Epstein, Jorge E. Pinzon, Compton J. Tucker, Richard L. Thoman, Huy Tran, Nicole Mölders, Michael Steele, Jinlun Zhang, and Wendy Ermold

atmospheric boundary layer models ( Janjić 2002 ) were used. The exchange of heat, matter, and momentum at the surface–atmosphere interface were described by the unified Noah land surface scheme ( Tewari et al. 2004 ). Boundary forcing and initialization data were provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global final analysis and the WRF Model was initialized every 5 days. A reference simulation was run over the June–July 2010 period (the year was randomly selected), and a positive 3

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Sarah E. Perkins

model’s performance may differ depending on the user’s needs. Figure 2. Standardized metrics for (top) T max , (middle) T min , and (bottom) Pr for each CMIP3 GCM. Each metric in Table 2 was calculated per model against each reanalysis dataset for each grid box, averaged for the region, and standardized with respect to all other models for the metric in question. Black dots represent the average standardized metric per model, per variable. Table 3. The ranks and absolute standardized scores for

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Kyle C. McDonald, John S. Kimball, Eni Njoku, Reiner Zimmermann, and Maosheng Zhao

et al. 1996 ) evaluated the range of interannual variability of boreal forest growing season length and associated impacts on carbon and water fluxes and found that earlier spring thaws led to significant increases in simulated net carbon uptake. Soil temperature simulations from 1976 to 1996 for boreal forest stands show 6–7-week ranges in the timing of snowmelt and soil thaw at 3 cm, equivalent to a year-to-year change in growing season length of 30%. At the Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study

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Dev Niyogi, Elin M. Jacobs, Xing Liu, Anil Kumar, Larry Biehl, and P. Suresh C. Rao

1. Introduction Soil water storage and soil temperature are important components of land–atmosphere interactions and critical variables in research fields such as hydrology, ecology, meteorology, and agriculture ( Xia et al. 2013 ; Robock et al. 1998 ; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Ochsner et al. 2013 ). Climate change and related changes in soil temperature and soil water content is likely to bring alterations to agricultural systems in terms of crop productivity, crop

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E. T. A. Mitchard, S. S. Saatchi, F. F. Gerard, S. L. Lewis, and P. Meir

areas near the Djerem River in the north to middle of the Mbam Djerem National Park (see Figure 1 ). Seven of these transects ran from forest to savanna, with one entirely in forest. All trees with a diameter at 1.3 m [diameter at breast height (DBH)] greater than 5 cm had their diameter, height, canopy dimensions (distance from trunk to outermost leaf measured for all four compass points), and species identity recorded. A total of 1009 trees, representing 79 species from 33 families, were measured

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John W. Recha, Johannes Lehmann, M. Todd Walter, Alice Pell, Louis Verchot, and Mark Johnson

, 28 , 1333 – 1341 . Giertz , S. , B. Junge , and B. Diekkruger , 2005 : Assessing the effects of land use change on soil physical properties and hydrological processes in the sub-humid tropical environment of West Africa . Phys. Chem. Earth , 30 , 485 – 496 . Gilmour , D. A. , M. Bonell , and D. S. Cassells , 1987 : The effects of forestation on soil hydraulic properties in the Middle Hills of Nepal: A preliminary assessment . Mt. Res. Dev. , 7 , 239 – 249 . Glenday , J

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Robert Paul d'Entremont and Gary B. Gustafson

development (GOES, Meteosat, and GMS) have imaging sensors with a common visible and thermal infrared channel (refer to Table 1 ). As such all of the time-differencing cloud tests discussed thus far can be equally applied to data collected by any of them. The GOES-Next series of satellites introduces additional imager channels over Meteosat and GMS that have potential for significantly improving stationary low-cloud detection capabilities, especially at night. Most notably a middle-wavelength infrared

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Ted C. Eckmann, Christopher J. Still, Dar A. Roberts, and Joel C. Michaelsen

course of its fire season ( Korontzi 2005 ), and existing approaches to modeling fire emissions have not adequately accounted for seasonal variations in combustion completeness (e.g., Duncan et al. 2003 ; Ito and Penner 2004 ; van der Werf et al. 2004 ), which is a function of fire temperature ( Palacios-Orueta et al. 2005 ). Thus, the three MODIS scenes chosen for this demonstration were selected to be representative of early, middle, and late stages in southern Africa’s fire season to examine

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