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J. Li, X. Gao, R. A. Maddox, and S. Sorooshian

1. Introduction The North American monsoon (NAM) results from the seasonal transition in thermal contrasts between the North American continental and adjacent oceanic regions. A notable phenomenon associated with this transition is precipitation variation over North America during the monsoon season. After the monsoon system reaches the southwestern Mexico coast in mid-June and migrates northward to the southwestern United States in mid-July, rainfall increases over western Mexico and the

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David J. Gochis, W. James Shuttleworth, and Zong-Liang Yang

over the southwest United States and Mexico. The Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) (and similar modeling systems) is being increasingly recognized as critical in operational hydrometeorological prediction systems. However, there have been no definitive publications offering guidance on the relative performance of CPSs in MM5 over the North American monsoon (NAM) region, although a preliminary study by Gochis et

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Joseph A. Grim, Robert M. Rauber, Mohan K. Ramamurthy, Brian F. Jewett, and Mei Han

1. Introduction The heaviest snowfall in wintertime extratropical cyclones over central North America typically falls in the northwest quadrant within an approximately 200-km-wide swath (e.g., Seeley 1921 ; Mook and Norquest 1956 ; Bosart 1981 ; Martin 1998a , b ; Market and Cissell 2002 ; Moore et al. 2005 ) as cyclones progress eastward from the Rocky Mountains or northward from the Gulf of Mexico. Frontal structures and associated frontal circulations are modified sharply in the

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Diane H. Portis, Michael P. Cellitti, William L. Chapman, and John E. Walsh

past century during the 1983/84 winter. CAO frequency has been linked to the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex and the phase of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode ( Thompson et al. 2002 ; Thompson and Wallace 2001 ). Rogers and Rohli (1991) have linked the frequency of CAOs that reach Florida to the phase changes in the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern. Both of these associations can be traced to the strength of the large-scale meridional circulation, which is important in

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John H. Ward and Phillip J. Smith

83;6 MO'NTHLY WEATHER REVIEW .VoLum~ 104A Kinetic Energy Budget over North America During a Period of Short Synoptic Wave Development JOaN H. ~an~pt ~v~ 7 J~y 1975, ~ ~ fo~ 7 ~fi[ 1976) ~efic ~ bud~t o~ Nor~ Am~ ~ ~mpu~ ~ s~da~ m~nde da~ d~ing 11-24Apffi 1970, s p~ of ~p~ ~o~ s~op~c wa~ de~opment. A ~m~ve ~ys~~o~ons do~m~t~ for p~i~s of int~m~ s~op~c wave ~fiu~ is p

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Jerome Namias

1368 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 114Persistence of Flow Patterns over North America and Adjacent Ocean Sectors JEROME NAMIASScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093(Manuscript received 27 July 1985, in final form 3 February 1986) This paper constitutes an attempt to elucidate and account for the chara~eristics of pet.~i__stence of monthto-month, season-to-season, and year

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Marko Markovic, Hai Lin, and Katja Winger

condition problems, as in regional climate models ( Giorgi and Mearns 1999 ), makes the variable-resolution technique a valuable tool that can be used to assess climate regionally and globally. For the purpose of regional climate modeling, Fox-Rabinovitz et al. (2001) tested the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) SGM with an increased resolution over North America to assess the 1988 summer drought in the United States. Their results suggest that SGM-simulated North American regional fields are

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Mark LaJoie and Arlene Laing

, continentality, moisture availability, ocean currents, and terrain. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon exerts a profound influence on global weather and climate ( Philander 1990 ; Trenberth 1997 ; McPhaden 2002 ). In North America, the ENSO extremes lead to a displacement or disruption of the jet stream ( Ropelewski and Halpert 1986 ; Green et al. 1997 ). For example, during a warm episode (El Niño) winter, the subtropical jet stream shifts southward, displaces storm tracks to the southern

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Xiaoming Sun and Ana P. Barros

locations, far apart from each other and predominantly at low elevations ( Fig. 1c ). The spatial resolution (approximately at 32 km × 32 km horizontal grid spacing) of the 3-hourly model-based North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR; Mesinger et al. 2006 ) is too coarse to capture the complex terrain effects at the characteristic scales (<250 km 2 ) of flash floods and earth flows in southern Appalachian catchments ( Fig. 1c ). Furthermore, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also considerably

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John Cortinas Jr.

the significant damage and fatalities occurred east of the Great Lakes of North America, these devastating storms occur in the Great Lakes region as well. One such ice storm moved across southern Ontario on 13–14 January 1968 and produced ice accumulations up to 4 cm over 2.5 × 10 4 km 2 . The effects from this storm included widespread power outages, disrupted mail and fire service, and collapsed buildings throughout the area ( McKay and Thompson 1969 ). In other parts of the Great Lakes, Storm

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