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Shuguang Wang, Edwin P. Gerber, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Climate models predict that there will be a substantial warming of the earth’s atmosphere by the end of the twenty-first century, accompanied by significant changes in the general circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere, if anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not abated. Coupled atmosphere–ocean climate models project that the tropospheric extratropical jets will shift poleward (e.g., Yin 2005 ; Miller et al. 2006 ), accompanied by an expansion of the

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Haile Xue, Jian Li, Tingting Qian, and Hongping Gu

northern Norway ( Grønås and Sandvik 1999 ). These downslope windstorms indicate that a strong interaction can occur between the local mountain and upper atmosphere over a wide spectrum of topography. The multiscale topographies on the Tibetan Plateau have a high impact on the regional and global weather and climate ( Shi et al. 2008 ; Boos and Kuang 2010 ; Shi et al. 2017 ; Zhao et al. 2018 ). The precipitation bias over orographic regions, especially over the Tibetan Plateau, is higher than in

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Chenghai Wang, Kai Yang, Yiling Li, Di Wu, and Yue Bo

1. Introduction As an external forcing, snow plays an important role in the global radiation balance ( Shukla and Mooley 1987 ; Sankar-Rao et al. 1996 ; Walland and Simmonds 1996 ) and atmosphere–land interaction ( Yeh et al. 1983 ; Vernekar et al. 1995 ). It also has strong effects on the energy budget, hydrologic processes, and atmospheric circulation anomalies, which are regarded as sensitive indicators of climate change ( Blanford 1884 ; Yeh et al. 1983 ; Bamzai and Shukla 1999

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Donald M. Hunten

NOVEMBER 1973 D O N A L D M. H U N T E N 1481The Escape of Light Gases from Planetary Atmospheres DONALD M. I-IuNTEN Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. 85717(Manuscript received 11 May 1973, in revised form 16 July 1973)ABSTRACT The Jeans-Spitzer treatment of atmospheric escape by evaporation must be supplemented, for a mixtureof gases, by a discussion of the mutual

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L. V. Berkner and L. C. Marshall

VOL. 23, NO. 2 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES MARCH 1966Limitation on Oxygen Concentration in a Primitive Planetary Atmosphere~ L. Vo BERKNER AND L. C. MARSHALLSouthwest Center for Advanced Studies, Dallas, Texas(Manuscript received 23 August 1965, in revised form 27 September 1965)ABSTRACT The absorption of ultraviolet radiation across the dissociative band (1500-2100 .~) is computed for thethree component

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Stephen I. Thomson and Michael E. McIntyre

. Fluid Mech. , 181 , 527 – 565 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112087002209 . Pierrehumbert , R. T. , 2010 : Principles of Planetary Climate. Cambridge University Press, 652 pp . Porco , C. C. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Cassini imaging of Jupiter’s atmosphere, satellites, and rings . Science , 299 , 1541 – 1547 , doi: 10.1126/science.1079462 . Read , P. L. , P. J. Gierasch , B. J. Conrath , A. Simon-Miller , T. Fouchet , and Y. H. Yamazaki , 2006 : Mapping potential

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Y. T. Chiu and J. M. Straus

Ma-1974 Y.T. CHIU AND J. M. STRAUS 1109The Structure of Planetary Waves in the Auroral Region Upper Atmosphere~ Y. T. Catu ^t~r) J. M. STItAUSSpace Physics Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, Calif. 90245(Manuscript received 26 September 1973, in revised form 30 January 1974)ABSTRACT Invoking recent satellite observations of the planetary-scale variations of auroral

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by applying the well-1B. A. A. 8. Nottingham Report, p. 682, 1893..--established laws of the kinetic theory to the problem, and hispaper On the escape of gases from planetary atmospheresaccording to the kinetic theory appeared in the Astrophys-ical Journal for January, 1900. Contemporaneous with thepublication of this paper Dr. (3. H. Bryan read a paper on theIC Kinetic theory of planetary atmospheres before the RoyalSociety. This paper apIfeared in the Transactions of theRoyal Society, London

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G. E. Hunt and I. P. Grant

SEPTEMBER 1969 G. E. H U N T A N D I. P. G RAN T 963Discrete Space Theory of Radiative Transfer and its Application to Problems in Planetary Atmospheres G. E. HUNT AND L P. GRANTScience l~esearch Council, Atlas Computer Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Berkshire, England (Marmscript received 9 May 1969, in revised form 13 June ~969)ABSTRACT The classical methods that have been devised to

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. INTRODUCTIONThe vertical motions at the earth's surface associatedwith horizontal adow over the mountain ranges are ofimportance both for their direct effect on local climate (e.g.,adiaba:ic warming and cooling with accompanyingcloud aud precipitation formation) and for their indirecteffect on planetary climate by the forcing of stationarywave systems (e.g., Charney and Eliassen 1949). Thisvertical motion is given bywhere V is the vector horizontal wind of which u is theeastward component and v is the

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