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C. W. Fairall, A. B. White, J. B. Edson, and J. E. Hare

the Sea (HEXOS) experiment in 1987 on a North Sea platform ( Fairall et al. 1990 ). An updated version of the system was used for the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) pilot cruise on the R/V Wecoma in 1990 ( Young et al. 1992 ). The wind profiler, ceilometer, and rawinsonde system were first deployed in the Tropical Instability Wave Experiment (TIWE) cruise aboard the R/V Moana Wave in 1991 ( Chertock etal. 1993 ). The microwave radiometer was added for the Atlantic Stratocumulus

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Frank H. Ruggiero, John Michalakes, Thomas Nehrkorn, George D. Modica, and Xiaolei Zou

horizontal grid spacings as small as 10 km. The dynamical equations are solved by finite-difference methods. Advection is handled by a second-order-centered scheme. Time splitting is used to compute separately the fast- and slow-moving waves. For slower-moving waves a long time step is used with the leapfrog approach and the Asselin (1972) filter. For the faster-moving waves, the semi-implicit method of Klemp and Wilhelmson (1978) is used. MM5v1 also included a modest list of physics

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Ken Tanaka, Karen Woodberry, Harry Hendon, and Murry Salby

to understandingthe dynamical response to convective heating. For example, small-scale fluctuations operating coherently onshort time scales favor the excitation of gravity waves,but play only a minor role in large-scale disturbances.Only that fraction of convective heating that operatescoherently on large scales contributes to the excitationof planetary waves. Similar considerations apply to hydrological and radiative processes. Therefore, a complete understanding of these processes requires a

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M. Adam, B. B. Demoz, D. D. Venable, E. Joseph, R. Connell, D. N. Whiteman, A. Gambacorta, J. Wei, M. W. Shephard, L. M. Miloshevich, C. D. Barnet, R. L. Herman, and J. Fitzgibbon

monitoring campaigns. b. HURL system The HURL system operated over a 14-day period between 7 July and 12 August 2006 as part of WAVES 2006. Figure 1 shows an example of a time series of WVMR (g kg −1 ) profile data covering around 30.5 h: starting at 0050 UTC 4 August and ending at 0721 UTC 5 August 2006. Temporally, convective clouds were present at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL; better seen in aerosol backscatter ratio), specifically over the first 3 h and during daytime operation

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Anthony Finn and Kevin Rogers

are not aware of any techniques where it has been employed to infer the properties of both the atmosphere and a water body together. If feasible, such a technique may allow for inspection of the variability and interaction of internal waves and other transport, circulation, and mixing processes between these two important environments: interchanges that are of considerable interest to meteorologists, climatologists, and oceanographers—particularly if such information were available in real time

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Carmen Cordoba-Jabonero, Manuel Gil, Margarita Yela, Marion Maturilli, and Roland Neuber

vortex. Planetary wave activity destabilized the polar vortex, creating a second separated, smaller-size vortex center ( Rösevall et al. 2007 ). This picture depicts the isolation of the polar air mass from air masses outside the polar vortex. Red colors in Fig. 2 (top) are related to very high PV values. Excursions to inner vortex of green filaments (outside vortex air) or even yellow ones (vortex border) are almost lacking. In Fig. 3 (top), the temperature at the 475-K isentropic level is

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Xuelei Feng, Feiqin Xie, Chi O. Ao, and Richard A. Anthes

stratosphere ( Healy and Thépaut 2006 ; Cucurull and Derber 2008 ). RO observations have advanced the knowledge of various physical processes, including the troposphere-stratosphere exchange, gravity waves, planetary boundary layer (PBL), and hurricane/typhoon evolution ( Anthes 2011 ; Bonafoni et al. 2019 ; Ho et al. 2019 ; and references therein). Numerous studies have demonstrated the values of RO soundings in detecting the PBL height (e.g., Sokolovskiy et al. 2006 , 2007 ; Ao et al. 2008 ; Basha

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E. Martini, A. Freni, F. Cuccoli, and L. Facheris

scintillation. The impact of scintillation disturbance is particularly significant when considering methods for sounding the atmosphere by means of radio waves that propagate from a transmitter to a receiver in a limb geometry. In such a context, correctly modeling the scintillation effects is of paramount importance to evaluate the performance and the potential of the sounding approach. Martini et al. (2006) have developed a theoretical model for analyzing the scintillation effects due to turbulence on a

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P. F. J. Lermusiaux

a zero crossing near 100 m. The signs of T and S reverse at about 1500 and 1300 m, respectively. Below, local extrema are much smaller than the global upper-thermocline extrema. Overall, where T and S are both relatively large, they are in phase, compensating each other in density. The surface û ( Fig. 10 , 1a ) and cross sections in û and υ̂ ( Fig. 10 , 1b ) confirm a predominant geostrophic equilibrium. A weak topographic wave pattern is also visible in the û map and

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Yoshimi Kawai and Hiroshi Kawamura

near the surface unless the eddy diffusion coefficients were forcibly enlarged. This suggests that the hulls of the buoys disturb the temperature fields in the vicinity of the sea surface. Even when the wind is very weak and the observed wave height is almost zero, there are gravity waves and swells whose wavelengths are long and amplitudes are very small in the real seas. The wave and swell will swing the hull slightly and slowly. The waves with short wavelengths induced by the weak wind will

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