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Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification

A Policy Statement of the American Meteorological Society as adopted by the Council on 5 January 1992

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R. H. Moss, S. Avery, K. Baja, M. Burkett, A. M. Chischilly, J. Dell, P. A. Fleming, K. Geil, K. Jacobs, A. Jones, K. Knowlton, J. Koh, M. C. Lemos, J. Melillo, R. Pandya, T. C. Richmond, L. Scarlett, J. Snyder, M. Stults, A. M. Waple, J. Whitehead, D. Zarrilli, B. M. Ayyub, J. Fox, A. Ganguly, L. Joppa, S. Julius, P. Kirshen, R. Kreutter, A. McGovern, R. Meyer, J. Neumann, W. Solecki, J. Smith, P. Tissot, G. Yohe, and R. Zimmerman

and community values in decision-making. And they highlight the need for additional research and assessment to improve options and knowledge to support implementation. For many communities, the challenge is to incorporate information about climate change and policies into planning economic opportunities, improving social welfare, updating infrastructure, protecting water resources, or conserving natural environments. Others need to manage overt climate threats—reducing risks of calamitous

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Corrine Noel Knapp, Shannon M. McNeeley, John Gioia, Trevor Even, and Tyler Beeton

Federal land management agencies were tasked by the Obama administration with integrating climate change science and related impacts (biophysical and social) into their planning processes ( U.S. Department of the Interior 2014 ; Obama 2009 , 2013 , 2015 ). Yet, integration has varied across federal land management agencies, with strong leadership in the National Park Service (2010 , 2012) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS; USFS 2009 ) and less guidance from the BLM. A recent review of BLM field

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S. Hoekstra, K. Klockow, R. Riley, J. Brotzge, H. Brooks, and S. Erickson

% were female and 46% were male. About 92% were Caucasian. About 11% were between 18 and 25 years of age, 10% between 26 and 35, 16% between 36 and 45, 20% between 46 and 55, 14% between 56 and 65, and 30% over 65 years of age (a bias toward those older than 65 is acknowledged). Respondents were asked if they had an action plan if a tornado were to strike, as well as if they had a designated tornado shelter (which can be defined as any location the individual safely locates themselves during a

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

, especially in water-scarce semiarid and arid regions ( Fekete et al. 2004 ; Vorosmarty et al. 2000 ; Kundzewicz et al. 2008 ). The challenge is particularly acute in developing and transitional economies such as India and China, where many of the problems listed above are pervasive because of extreme population pressure and persistent rural poverty ( Alley et al. 2002 ; Chao et al. 2008 ; UNDP 2006 ). Adequate short-term management and sound long-term planning of water resources are key prerequisites

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Sebastian Sippel, Peter Walton, and Friederike E. L. Otto

). This would potentially contribute to closing communication gaps in media and public discourse in how daily weather is influenced by long-term climate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that on regional levels, attribution information could assist government authorities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and businesses in adaptation planning ( Pall et al. 2011 ; Schiermeier 2011 ; Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2011 ; Stott et al. 2013 ), emphasizing changes in extremes that are not only projected

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

the social sciences? Any hope we have to address the impacts of climatic change better is predicated on our ability to understand the problem and come up with viable solutions. From an impact perspective, individuals, communities, institutions (rules, norms, and practices), and organizations at every scale are an integral part of the climatic change problem either by being vulnerable to its impacts or by being able to avoid (plan and prepare) and respond to them (adapt). Early on, pioneers in the

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Cindy H. Chiu, Sara J. Vagi, Amy F. Wolkin, John Paul Martin, and Rebecca S. Noe

. Directions for future research The purpose of this survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the population of Burleigh County regarding a specific warning message distributed by the NWS. The goal was to obtain quick information that was generalizable to the target area, to be used for local public health planning but not necessarily generalizable to the population at large. The results, while accomplishing the intended purpose, also raise many questions about the distribution of

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