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Hai-Tien Lee and Robert G. Ellingson

model used in this study has been validated with line-by-line model calculations and observations that demonstrated a flux difference to within 2% ( Ellingson and Serafino 1984 ). Fluxes calculated with the recently improved model agree with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to about 1 W m –2 for the entire vertical range of the atmosphere for several cases ( Warner and Ellingson 2000 ). Also, the outgoing longwave radiation estimation scheme based on this radiation model using a

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Daniel R. Hayes and James H. Morison

August (day 219) will be used here to discuss the performance and utility of the instrument and method because conditions were optimum for comparisons between the AMTV and TIC results: the lead upstream of the mast was over 1 km wide, the radiative fluxes were strong, the wind speed was 14 knots, and the ice–ocean relative velocity was 0.15 m s −1 . The AMTV went back and forth across the lead edge parallel or antiparallel to the relative surface current at about 5-m depth. The vehicle speed was

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

area mainly comes from latent heating. Having the Q 1 , Q 2 , and latent heating profiles together, we can estimate the vertical eddy transports of sensible heat and moisture on the basis of Eqs. (27) and (28) . Only the estimation of eddy moisture flux is discussed here because the estimates of eddy sensible heat flux would involve unknown errors due how the radiative cooling profile is specified. Figure 13 shows the eddy moisture flux profiles for two-day averaged convective and stratiform

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Xiangzhou Song

1. Introduction Air–sea turbulent heat fluxes (THFs) include the latent heat flux (LH) and the sensible heat flux (SH), which are associated with evaporative and convective processes, respectively. THFs strongly influence the ocean mixed layer depth and the stability and convection within the atmospheric boundary layer (e.g., Cayan 1992 ). THFs also constitute the key components that balance the surface radiative processes to obtain the net air–sea heat fluxes. Following the Monin

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John M. Davis and Stephen K. Cox

1. Introduction The use of bidirectional reflectance models for inferring the reflected solar radiation flux density from narrow field of view (FOV) measurements is a critical process in the effort to monitor the earth’s climate system from space. Efforts to categorize the angular patterns of solar radiation reflected from various components of the earth’s atmosphere system have been numerous and have spanned the entire history of meteorological satellites. While wide FOV detectors can most

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Kexin Zhang, Mitchell D. Goldberg, Fengying Sun, Lihang Zhou, Walter W. Wolf, Changyi Tan, Nicholas R. Nalli, and Quanhua Liu

. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 13 463 – 13 475 , doi: 10.1002/2013JD020389 . 10.1002/2013JD020389 Lee , H.-T. , A. Gruber , R. Ellingson , and I. Laszlo , 2007 : Development of the HIRS outgoing longwave radiation climate dataset . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 24 , 2029 – 2047 , doi: 10.1175/2007JTECHA989.1 . 10.1175/2007JTECHA989.1 Loeb , N. G. , S. Kato , K. Loukachine , and N. Manalo-Smith , 2005 : Angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux estimation

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Gottfried Hänel and Karin Kastner

-2310(97)00289-6 Iqbal, M., 1983: An Introduction to Solar Radiation. Academic Press, 390 pp. Murai, K., M. Kobayashi, R. Goto, and T. Yamuachi, 1976: The absorption of solar radiation in the lower atmosphere. Pap. Meteor. Geophys., 27, 21–32. 10.2467/mripapers1950.27.1_21 Roach, W. T., 1961: Some aircraft observations of fluxes of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 87, 346–363. 10.1002/qj.49708737307 Valero, P. J., W. J. Y. Gore, and L. P. M. Giver, 1982: Radiative flux

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Keir Colbo and Robert A. Weller

1. Introduction The Improved Meteorological (IMET) sensor suite is a package for measuring surface meteorological variables at sea ( Hosom et al. 1995 ) and observing the variables necessary to compute, from bulk formulas, the surface fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum. A standard deployment consists of two independent IMET packages, each with the following sensors: air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), barometric pressure, relative humidity (RH), wind speed and direction

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M. Pérez and L. Alados-Arboledas

flux that is emitted by the dome to the sensor surface and the small part of the solar spectrum ( λ > 4 μ m) that is included in the longwave region—several authors have proposed different expressions, with physically based parameters, for the entire radiative balance of the pyrgeometer. Alados-Arboledas et al. (1988) have proposed the following expression: where ɛ o is the sensor surface longwave emissivity, ɛ is the silicon dome longwave emissivity, τ is the silicon dome longwave

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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Janet E. Martinez, Jerald A. Brotzge, and Jeffrey B. Basara

. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 2043 – 2058 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2043:AAFLSH>2.0.CO;2 Fuchs, M. , 1990 : Canopy thermal infrared observations. Remote Sens. Rev. , 5 , 323 – 333 . 10.1080/02757259009532139 Ibanez, M. , Perez P. J. , Rosell J. I. , and Castellvi F. , 1999 : Estimation of the latent heat flux over full canopy covers from the radiative temperature. J. Appl. Meteor. , 38 , 423 – 431 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0423:EOTLHF>2.0.CO;2 Jackson, T. J. , Le Vine D. M

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