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Andrew D. Gronewold, Vincent Fortin, Robert Caldwell, and James Noel

’s platforms (and the datasets generated from them) do not typically cross the U.S.–Canadian border because they are constrained by jurisdictional (rather than basin or watershed) boundaries. These inconsistencies can propagate into gaps, discontinuities, and errors in corresponding datasets. Regional precipitation datasets from NOAA, for example, typically originate from radar, satellite, and monitoring station data that are quality controlled within each of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) River

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Yong Wang, Martin Belluš, Andrea Ehrlich, Máté Mile, Neva Pristov, Petra Smolíková, Oldřich Španiel, Alena Trojáková, Radmila Brožková, Jure Cedilnik, Dijana Klarić, Tomislav Kovačić, Ján Mašek, Florian Meier, Balázs Szintai, Simona Tascu, Jozef Vivoda, Clemens Wastl, and Christoph Wittmann

A central European program pursues regional extensive scientific and technical collaboration in the field of operational limited-area numerical modeling for regional and local weather research, forecasting, and applications. Limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are essential tools for regional and local weather prediction and atmospheric research. The development, implementation, and operational execution of a limited-area model (LAM) are demanding on both human and computer

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G. Myhre, P. M. Forster, B. H. Samset, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Sillmann, S. G. Aalbergsjø, T. Andrews, O. Boucher, G. Faluvegi, D. Fläschner, T. Iversen, M. Kasoar, V. Kharin, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Olivié, T. B. Richardson, D. Shindell, K. P. Shine, C. W. Stjern, T. Takemura, A. Voulgarakis, and F. Zwiers

range of climate models. The aim of PDRMIP is to perform a thorough investigation of the differences in the effects of anthropogenic and natural drivers on precipitation and extreme precipitation events. This will be accomplished based on five core simulations, with global perturbation to either anthropogenic or natural drivers of climate change, as well as six selected regional perturbation experiments. PDRMIP will in particular enhance our understanding of drivers of climate change other than CO 2

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Thomas R. Loveland and Rezaul Mahmood

Sustained assessment of the climatic impacts of land use and land cover change is essential. Land use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report ( Melillo et al. 2014 ) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003

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Gabriele G. Pfister, Sebastian D. Eastham, Avelino F. Arellano, Bernard Aumont, Kelley C. Barsanti, Mary C. Barth, Andrew Conley, Nicholas A. Davis, Louisa K. Emmons, Jerome D. Fast, Arlene M. Fiore, Benjamin Gaubert, Steve Goldhaber, Claire Granier, Georg A. Grell, Marc Guevara, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, Xiaohong Liu, Daniel R. Marsh, John J. Orlando, John M. C. Plane, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Karen H. Rosenlof, Allison L. Steiner, Daniel J. Jacob, and Guy P. Brasseur

Empirical and modeling studies have provided strong evidence of dynamical and chemical coupling across the range of spatial and temporal scales inherent in the Earth system (e.g., Prinn 2012 ). Current chemical transport models, however, inadequately account for the two-way coupling of atmospheric chemistry with other Earth system components over the range of urban/local to regional to global scales and from the surface up to the top of the atmosphere. As a result, the predictability of local

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Yi-Leng Chen, Pay-Liam Lin, Feng Hsiao, Pao-Shin Chu, and Mei-Huei Su

-MET). The only exception was the last paper which was on the dynamics of El Niño presented by Fei-Fei Jin (UHM-MET). The second day of the conference focused on two of the most profound disastrous weather phenomena over Taiwan: typhoons and mei-yu, which is the regional frontal system in late spring that brings in frequent heavy rainfall. These two phenomena also act as major water resources for the island. These papers were presented by researchers with the aim of transferring the research findings and

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Lisa Goddard, James W. Hurrell, Benjamin P. Kirtman, James Murphy, Timothy Stockdale, and Carolina Vera

as an important time scale for endeavors such as water, agricultural, and land use planning (e.g., Vera et al. 2010 ). The promise of decadal climate prediction is supported by observational evidence of decadal climate variability with significant regional impacts, the effects of anthropogenic and naturally forced climate change, evidence of potential skill from idealized predictability studies ( Collins et al. 2006 ; Boer 2011 ), and pioneering attempts at predictions obtained by initializing

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Tsegaye Tadesse, Deborah Bathke, Nicole Wall, Jacob Petr, and Tonya Haigh

Africa is highly vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate change such as increased temperatures, reductions in precipitation, and increased climate variability. In many regions, such as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), the effects of these changes are compounded by rapid population growth, high poverty levels, dependence on rain-fed agriculture, and low adaptive capacity. Given the great uncertainty in climate projections for the GHA, early warning systems that are robust to evolving climate

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Chris Hewitt, Carlo Buontempo, Paula Newton, Francisco Doblas-Reyes, Kerstin Jochumsen, and Detlef Quadfasel

-term predictions on multiannual time scales. The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) aims to determine the predictability of climate and the effects of human activities on climate. The Paris Agreement was reached in large part because of the knowledge provided by the scientific community. The focus of research now must evolve from “making the case” for anthropogenic climate change to the development and dissemination of regional information to minimize risks and build resilience. A smart end

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Andrew D. Gronewold and Craig A. Stow

) describe these systems, collectively, as sentinels of regional and global changes in climate, land use, and water resource management policy because they integrate the effects of multiple system drivers over broad spatial and temporal scales. Impacts from these changes, such as those documented by Clark et al. (2001) and Livingstone (2003) , range from shifts in the timing and intensity of freshwater inputs and pollutant loadings, to habitat and ecosystem disruption following the invasion and spread

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