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Yu Zhang and James A. Smith

1. Introduction The Menomonee River, which drains much of the Milwaukee metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ), experienced record flooding 21 June 1997 and 6 August 1998. Sample flood frequency distributions ( Fig. 2 ) for the Menomonee River at Wauwautosa [319 km 2 ; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauge number 04087120] and its tributaries Underwood Creek (47 km 2 ; USGS gauge number 04087088) and the Menomonee River at Menomonee Falls (90 km 2 ; USGS gauge number 04087030) illustrate the magnitudes

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Daqing Yang, Baisheng Ye, and Alexander Shiklomanov

1. Introduction Discharge from northern-flowing rivers is the primary freshwater source to the Arctic Ocean. Studies show that both the amount and the timing of freshwater inflow to the ocean systems are important to ocean circulation, salinity, and sea ice dynamics ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ; Macdonald 2000 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ). Climate over Arctic regions has experienced significant changes during the past few decades. For instance, climate changes over Siberian regions include

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Yi Xi, Shushi Peng, Philippe Ciais, Matthieu Guimberteau, Yue Li, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, Jan Polcher, Jiashuo Yu, Xuanze Zhang, Feng Zhou, Yan Bo, Catherine Ottle, and Zun Yin

al. 2000 ; Xiong et al. 2010 ). Meeting the demand for water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial purposes from limited water resources is likely to be a challenge for the future. In China, river flow makes up ~80% of water consumption and is thus the main water source for human society. Especially in the context of climate change, this creates an urgent need to quantify and understand the factors that contribute to changes in river flow and allow water planning and management of China to

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Gerhard Smiatek and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is the most important freshwater system in the region, and its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. As the countries in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region show high rates of growth of population and urbanization, the current scarcity of water is expected to worsen in the future, with the additional pressure on the water

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Michael G. Bosilovich and Jiun-Dar Chern

. Brubaker et al. (2001) showed the long-term analysis of evaporative sources for the Mississippi River basin (MRB). Variations of evaporative oceanic sources can affect the recycling of precipitation. In addition, over 36 years some significant trends in sources of water for the basin were identified. Second, Bosilovich et al. (2005) evaluated climate atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations for a 50-yr duration. The AGCMs show global increasing trends of precipitation, but the trend

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S.-Y. Simon Wang, Robert R. Gillies, Oi-Yu Chung, and Chaopeng Shen

1. Introduction The Colorado River spans seven states in the western United States and is a leading provider of water for municipal use, agriculture, and power in the Southwest. In the face of the warming climate, numerous papers have warned about sizable water shortages of the Colorado River ( Barnett and Pierce 2008 , 2009 ; Christensen et al. 2004 ; McCabe and Wolock 2007 ; Rajagopalan et al. 2009 ). In 2013, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) released a comprehensive Colorado River Basin

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Yali Luo, Weimiao Qian, Renhe Zhang, and Da-Lin Zhang

1. Introduction Climatologically, the mei-yu season over the Yangtze–Huai Rivers basin (YHRB; Fig. 1b ) in east-central China from mid-June to mid-July is one of the three heavy rainfall periods in China. The other two are the early summer rainy season from mid-May to mid-June over south China and the summer rainy season in north-northeast China after mid-July (e.g., Ding 1992 ). This intraseasonal variation exhibits sharp northward shifts among the three regions, which are associated with

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Do Hyuk Kang, Xiaogang Shi, Huilin Gao, and Stephen J. Déry

1. Introduction The presence of a seasonal snowpack in western Canada forms an essential component of its regional water resources and also serves as a sensitive indicator of climate change. Peak flows of the Fraser River of British Columbia (BC) and its many tributaries usually occur in late spring and early summer and are driven by snowmelt, especially at high elevations ( Moore and Wondzell 2005 ). The Fraser River basin (FRB) is a snow-dominated system ( Morrison et al. 2002 ), but

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Vladimir V. Smirnov and G. W. K. Moore

1. Introduction Studies of the hydrological cycle are extremely important for understanding the global climate system and its sensitivity to anthropogenic effects ( Chahine 1992 ). Atmospheric water vapor is one of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect, to which the Arctic is most susceptible ( Jones 1988 ; Manabe et al. 1991 ; Hinzman and Kane 1992 ). One of the regions that has experienced the greatest warming anywhere in the world over the last 30 years is the Mackenzie River

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Inés Camilloni and Vicente Barros

1. Introduction Starting in May 1983, the most severe floods of the twentieth century occurred in the Argentine section of the Paraná River, the most important of the Río de la Plata tributaries. Although a documented study is not available, this flood has been generally attributed to the exceptionally strong El Niño (EN) event that took place during late 1982 and the ensuing months of 1983. This belief was based on the fact that the Paraná River basin is part of a region that has a strong

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