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William L. Woodley, Cecilia G. Griffith, Joseph S. Griffin, and Scott C. Stromatt

central objectives of GATE as expressed by Kuettner et al. (1974)before program commencement. As a consequence,several precipitation analysis programs that use t Present affiliation: Office of the Director, EnvironmentalResearch Laboratories, Boulder, CO 80303. ~ Present affiliation: The University of Chicago.various combinations of shipboard radar and raingages, salinity measurements, atmospheric soundings and satellite imagery were supported to ensureachievement of the central GATE objectives

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Guy Potvin, Denis Dion, Jacques Claverie, Paul A. Frederickson, Kenneth L. Davidson, and J. Luc Forand

parameters taken at the sea surface, whereas subscript n refers to a value at height z n .) Moreover, it is also assumed that the wind speed at the sea surface is zero ( U 0 = 0), and the relative humidity at the sea surface is given by where s is the salinity expressed in grams per kilogram. The relative humidity values also need to be converted into specific humidity. To this end, we recall that the relative humidity is defined as where P w and P ws are the water vapor pressure and the

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Surabi Menon, V. K. Saxena, and B. D. Logie

inhomogeneities among cloud droplets. Tellus, 44B, 208–225. Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett, 1978: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. D. Reidel, 714 pp. Radke, L. F., and D. A. Hegg, 1972: The shattering of saline droplets upon crystallization. Atmos. Res., 6, 447–455. Saxena, V. K., and R. J.-Y. Yeh, 1988: Temporal variability in cloud water acidity: Physico-chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and windfield. J. Aerosol Sci., 19, 1207–1210. Saxena, V. K., and N

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Michelle M. Gierach, Mark A. Bourassa, Philip Cunningham, James J. O’Brien, and Paul D. Reasor

nonlinear model that describes the relationship between wind velocity and σ °. This function is written as where u is the wind speed, χ is the relative direction (the angle between the wind direction and the look direction of the scatterometer), θ is the surface incidence angle, pol is the electromagnetic polarization, and f is the radar frequency ( Naderi et al. 1991 ). Other factors such as temperature, ocean salinity, and foam also affect the relationship between wind and σ °, but they are

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Matthew J. Widlansky, John J. Marra, Md. Rashed Chowdhury, Scott A. Stephens, Elaine R. Miles, Nicolas Fauchereau, Claire M. Spillman, Grant Smith, Grant Beard, and Judith Wells

levels have been observed to drop by more than 30 cm around tropical western Pacific islands ( Becker et al. 2012 ) relative to the long-term climatology ( Fig. 2 ), potentially damaging coral reefs and associated coastal ecosystems ( Widlansky et al. 2014 ). Conversely, during La Niña events, above-normal sea levels up to 20 cm higher ( Chowdhury et al. 2007 ) increase the risks of damage to infrastructure and salinization of aquifers from coastal inundations caused by waves or storm surges ( Becker

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Paul B. MacCready Jr. and Donald M. Takeuchi

condensationnuclei distribution, and 2) a small population (~.0.02cm-3) of giant droplets. The giant droplets (25-60 udiameter may arise from giant condensation nuclei orfrom larger liquid drops generated in previous adjacentclouds and not yet evaporated. If the salt in a water drop is so small that the evaporation rate is unaffected by salinity, then the drop in thesize range 25-60 t~ diameter will be in a transient, fastevaporating condition when encountered in the unsaturated air well below cloud base. In

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William H. Quinn and Wayne V. Burt

equatorial Pacific dry zone. J. Appl. Meteor., 9, 20-28. and W. M. Pawley, 1969: A study of several approaches to computing surface insolation over tropical oceans. J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 205-212.Schweigger~ E. H., 1961: Temperature anomalies in the eastern Pacific and their forecasting. Soc. Geogra. Lima, Bol., 78, 3-50. (Transl. as CSIRO No. 7639, 41 pp.).Seckel, G. R., and M. Y. Y. Yong, 1971: Harmonic functions for sea-surface temperatures and salinities, Koko Head, Oahu, 1956-69, and

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A. V. Korolev and I. P. Mazin

~:dr' (10)where f(r) is the droplet size spectrum, and t: is thegrowth rate of a droplet with radius r. The maximumsupersaturation is given by dW dWad -- = ~ (11) dt dt Substituting (9) and (10) into ( 11 ) using u~dW/dt= dW/dZ and ~: = AS/r [disregard curvature and salinity corrections and assume that cloud droplets aresufficiently large; A is a known coefficient (Pruppacherand Klett 1978 )] and

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Yamei Li, Wenxiang Wu, Quansheng Ge, Yang Zhou, and Chenchen Xu

assumes that environmental factors such as weeds, diseases, and insect pests are fully controlled and that soil problems such as salinity, acidity, or sodicity do not exist. Moreover, the CERES-Rice model could not perform well under extreme weather events such as floods and droughts because many simple, empirically derived relationships in this model may not hold under extreme climatic conditions ( Timsina and Humphreys 2006b ). Finally, because of a lack of related data and appropriate methods, this

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Nicolas Viltard, Christian Kummerow, William S. Olson, and Ye Hong

radiance slant paths through the three-dimensional domain are considered independently. The antenna pattern for each frequency is approximated by a Gaussian weighting function with the same 3-dB beamwidth as the actual antenna pattern ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ). The upwelling microwave radiances over ocean depend on the sea surface characteristics and the atmospheric constituents. In this study, the sea surface temperature is assumed to be 300 K, the salinity is set to a constant value of 35 ppm, and the

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