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Rémi Tailleux, Alban Lazar, and C. J. C. Reason

1. Introduction A current central issue in ocean climate theory is to understand the possible links between the variability of temperature and salinity anomalies and that of weather and climate fluctuations on the intraseasonal to decadal time scales. In the current state of our knowledge, salinity anomalies are known to be climatically important on long time scales because they affect the variability of the thermohaline circulation ( Rahmstorf 1995 ; Mikolajewicz and Maier-Reimer 1990 ) as

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Edgar L. Andreas

and tuned with data for wind speeds up to 20 m s −1 , I have some confidence that it can be extrapolated up to the lower limits of hurricane-strength winds—say to 40 m s −1 . As spray droplets evaporate, they become increasingly saline. By logically following the concept of reentrant spray droplets mentioned above, we see that these droplets must also constitute an effective salt flux to the ocean when they fall back into the sea. To my knowledge, no one has estimated this spray salt flux before

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Johan Nilsson, David Ferreira, Tapio Schneider, and Robert C. J. Wills

contrast in surface salinity between the Pacific and the Atlantic that prevents deep sinking in the North Pacific ( Weyl 1968 ; Warren 1983 ). In the North Pacific, surface water is fresher and lighter than the deep water, which is close to the mean deep-water salinity of the World Ocean. However, the salinity contrast in itself provides no satisfying process-based explanation, and there are diverging ideas of why this contrast arises. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the asymmetry in

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Eitarou Oka, Shinya Kouketsu, Katsuya Toyama, Kazuyuki Uehara, Taiyo Kobayashi, Shigeki Hosoda, and Toshio Suga

salinity as the CMW pycnostads in the permanent pycnocline, extends as far west as 143°E, almost reaching the east coast of Japan. How is CMW subducted from this zonally elongated formation region into the permanent pycnocline? The mechanism is important in determining the CMW properties and causing their variability but has not been well clarified. Numerical models demonstrated that CMW is subducted east of the date line by crossing a sharp front of the mixed layer depth (MLD) at the eastern end of

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Igor V. Kamenkovich and E. S. Sarachik

and freshwater fluxes nor the current skill of the numerical modeling of the ocean is sufficient for realistic simulations of the temperature and salinity. The ocean owes its stratification in large part to surface processes. Therefore, realistic simulation of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) is crucial for successful modeling of the ocean state, and a choice of surface boundary conditions is often dictated by the need to keep the values of simulated SST and SSS as

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Michael Winton and E. S. Sarachik

JULY 1993 WINTON AND SARACHIK 1389Thermohaline Oscillations Induced by Strong Steady Salinity Forcing of Ocean General Circulation Models* MICHAEL WINTON AND E. S. SARACHIKDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington(Manuscript received 24 February 1992, in final form 28 August 1992)ABSTRACT A series of numerical experiments is conducted with

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Lynne D. Talley and Jae-Yul Yun

( Talley 1991 ). A portion of the newly ventilated NPIW enters the subtropical gyre near the western boundary where the Oyashio and Kuroshio waters meet, interleave, and mix in the broad Mixed Water Region (MWR) between the separated Oyashio and Kuroshio Fronts ( Hasunuma 1978 ; Talley 1993 ; Talley et al. 1995 ; Yasuda et al. 1996 ). Within the North Pacific's subtropical gyre, NPIW is often identified by a salinity minimum at a potential density of σ θ = 26.7–26.8. This salinity minimum is

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Shinya Kouketsu, Ichiro Yasuda, and Yutaka Hiroe

1. Introduction The Kuroshio Extension is an eastward jet that forms after the Kuroshio separates from the east coast of Japan near the Boso Peninsula. Warm and saline water is transported by the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio Extension ( Fujimura and Nagata 1992 ; Yasuda et al. 1996 ; Hiroe et al. 2002 ). The Oyashio, which is the western boundary current of the subarctic gyre in the North Pacific Ocean, transports cold and low-salinity Oyashio water with low potential vorticity characteristics

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Gunnar I. Roden

1971 G U N N A R I. R O D E N 25Spectra of North Pacific Temperature and Salinity Perturbations in the Depth Domain GIYNNAR I. RODENDept. of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle(Manuscript received 18 March 1970, in revised form 15 April 1970)ABSTRACT In the central North Pacific, temperature and salinity depth profiles show considerable fine structure

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William J. Emery and Richard T. Wert

1976NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCETemperature-Salinity Curves in the Pacific and their Application to Dynamic Height Computation1 WILLIAM J. EMERY2 Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822 RICI~AaV T.Department of Oceanography, Texas A fir M University, College Station 77843 12 January 1976ABSTRACT Mean temperature-salinity (TS) curves are computed from all available hydrographic data for 10- quadrangles in the

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