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Mitchell Bushuk and Dimitrios Giannakis

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) has declined precipitously over the satellite era at a rate of roughly −14% decade −1 ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Stroeve et al. 2014 ). In addition to this decrease in areal coverage, submarine, satellite, and in situ measurements indicate that Arctic sea ice is becoming thinner ( Rothrock et al. 1999 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ), transitioning from multiyear to first-year ice ( Rigor and Wallace 2004 ; Maslanik et al. 2011 ) and experiencing longer

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Zhicong Yin, Huijun Wang, and Xiaohui Ma

and land surface radiation, the relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze in North China significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s ( Yin and Wang 2018 ). During the recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed about 2 times more than the global average, and the Arctic sea ice (ASI) has melted rapidly ( Cohen et al. 2014 ). The autumn ASI showed significant impacts on the Eurasian winter climate ( Wang and Liu 2016 ; He 2015 ; Li et al. 2015 ). The role of ASI with regard to

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Ivana Cerovečki, Andrew J. S. Meijers, Matthew R. Mazloff, Sarah T. Gille, Veronica M. Tamsitt, and Paul R. Holland

). Haumann et al. (2016) have attributed the freshening observed over the last several decades to an increase in wind-driven northward freshwater transport by Antarctic sea ice. This increase was strongest and most robust in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. In this sector, freshening was caused by increased southerly winds over the Ross Sea region, enhancing northward sea ice advection since the early 1990s ( Haumann et al. 2014 ; Holland and Kwok 2012 ). Strengthening of southerly winds over

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Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Lettie A. Roach, Aaron Donohoe, and Qinghua Ding

1. Introduction Antarctic sea ice is characterized by large interannual variability and a small long-term increase in areal coverage since 1979 (e.g., Comiso et al. 2017 ; Eisenman et al. 2014 ) despite an abrupt reduction in sea ice cover since 2016 ( Parkinson 2019 ). The observed record represents the combined effects of natural modes of atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere internal variability, the response to stratospheric ozone depletion, and the response to global warming, and much work

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Mengyuan Long, Lujun Zhang, Siyu Hu, and Shimeng Qian

1. Introduction The Arctic is covered by a large amount of sea ice all year round. Since the 1980s, the sea ice coverage area in the Arctic has rapidly decreased as global warming continues to develop ( Cavalieri et al. 2003 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stephenson et al. 2013 ). The Arctic sea ice cover is retreating at a rate 3 times as large as the rate of sea ice expanding in the Antarctic ( Eisenman et al. 2014 ). Deng (2014) pointed out that the sea ice concentration (SIC) changed

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Jun Yang, W. Richard Peltier, and Yongyun Hu

1. Introduction During the Neoproterozoic era, it is generally argued that two or more global-scale glaciations occurred, one that began at ~716 Ma (Ma ≡ 10 6 yr ago: the Sturtian glaciation) and a second that began at ~635 Ma (the Marinoan glaciation) (e.g., Macdonald et al. 2010 ), during which continental ice sheets reached low latitudes and the ocean was completely covered by thick sea ice. This will be referred to as the “Snowball” or “hard Snowball” hypothesis ( Harland and Bidgood 1959

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Andrew Rhines and Peter J. Huybers

), in order to be consistent with reconstructed glacier equilibrium line altitudes. Denton et al. (2005) also used similar methods to show that glacial winters in Europe were colder than those of the Holocene by a far greater margin than summers, indicating that more extreme seasonality was not limited to Greenland. Sea ice cover is a well-recognized influence on the seasonal cycle of accumulation in Greenland ( Steig et al. 1994 ; Krinner et al. 1997 ; Werner et al. 2000 , 2001 ; Krinner and

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Edward W. Doddridge, John Marshall, Hajoon Song, Jean-Michel Campin, and Maxwell Kelley

1. Introduction Each year approximately 15 million km 2 of sea ice forms and subsequently melts in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean ( Fetterer et al. 2017 ). The buoyancy fluxes associated with this seasonal ice cycle play an important role in the meridional overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean ( Abernathey et al. 2016 ; Haumann et al. 2016 ). This circulation connects the surface with the abyss and is a conduit for exchange between reservoirs of heat, carbon, and

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Olivier Andry, Richard Bintanja, and Wilco Hazeleger

1. Introduction Many studies, based on analyses of both models and observation, have shown that the warming in the Arctic region occurs 2 to 3 times faster than the global mean ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Serreze and Francis 2006 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ), a phenomenon that is commonly referred to as Arctic amplification (AA). This warming is accompanied by a strong decrease in summer Arctic sea ice extent and thickness, the former reaching historic low values in recent years ( Comiso et al

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Sahil Agarwal and John S. Wettlaufer

1. Introduction Polar amplification posits that if the average global temperature increases, the relative change in the polar regions will be larger, and hence the observed decline of the Arctic sea ice cover during the satellite era has been a key focus of research ( Kwok and Untersteiner 2011 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is an indicator of how atmospheric circulation can be related to observed changes in the sea ice cover. However, because it captures only

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