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C. A. Federer, C. Vörösmarty, and B. Fekete

importance of vegetative cover and rooting depth as compared to changes in soil properties on a water budget?” and “what is the degree of complexity in model structure necessary to obtain reasonable predictions?” In our own work over continental to global domains, we have used a suitably scaled water balance model (WBM) to examine water supply and ecosystem productivity issues. By suitably scaled we mean that the WBM is a distillation of the salient features of a physically based land surface hydrology

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Shiliu Chen, Kaighin A. McColl, Alexis Berg, and Yuefei Huang

products have proved useful in a variety of applications, a recent intercomparison study found substantial disagreement between diagnostic E products ( Miralles et al. 2016 ). Furthermore, when evaluated against global long-term catchment water balance estimates, none of the diagnostic E products demonstrated unequivocal improvements over E obtained from a reanalysis (Fig. 10 of Miralles et al. 2016 ). Since there is often a trade-off between model simplicity and accuracy, much attention has

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of the water vapor budget, written with evaporationas the residual. Thus, the sign of each term is the sign ofthe evaporation increment required to balance it. Anevaporation rate of 6.0 was computed for theperiod. The mean divergence term is the major term inthe balance equation. The horizontal advection term makesa relatively small contribution, amounting to only 10percent of the mean flux divergence.Profiles for the horizontal flux divergence terms areshown in figure 5. The mean

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Robert G. Gallimore

theseparate budgets for atmospheric energy and watervapor and the energy balance at the earth's surface.Specific parameterizations include 1) an explicit hyc 1983 American Meteorological Society40 JOURNAL Ob THE ATMOSPHERIC sCIENCES VOLUME40drologic cycle with the model water vapor used insolar absorption and longwave emission calculations;2) separate computations of evaporation, sensibleheating and albedo

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Rebecca H. Jackson and Fiammetta Straneo

Straneo 2012 ; Motyka et al. 2013 ; Xu et al. 2013 ; Inall et al. 2014 ; Mortensen et al. 2014 ; Bendtsen et al. 2015 ). Water properties and velocity, usually measured over a brief period, are used to estimate ocean heat transport through a fjord cross section. The heat transported toward the glacier is assumed to melt glacial ice, allowing a submarine melt rate to be calculated. Several studies also compute a salt budget to aid in extrapolating or constraining their velocity fields (e

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Christof Lorenz and Harald Kunstmann

. (1994) . When analyzing water budgets in atmospheric reanalysis models, it is convenient to further consider a term for the analysis increment—that is, the increment that is due to the forcing of the models toward the observations. The terrestrial water balance equation is then modified to where is accounting for surface residual water forcing. As further proposed in Roads et al. (2002) and Szeto et al. (2008) , the water storage tendency term is combined with residual forcing—that is

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Michio Yanai, Steven Esbensen, and Jan-Hwa Chu

, the excess temperature, andmoisture and the liquid water content of the clouds, are determined from a combination of 1) the observedlarge-scale heat and moisture budgets over an area covering the cloud cluster, and 2) a model of a cumulusensemble which exchanges mass, heat, water vapor and liquid water with the environment through entrainment and detrainment. The method also provides an understanding of how the environmental air is heatedand moistened by the cumulus convection. An estimate of the

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Andrea Ucker Timm, Débora R. Roberti, Nereu Augusto Streck, Luis Gustavo G. de Gonçalves, Otávio Costa Acevedo, Osvaldo L. L. Moraes, Virnei S. Moreira, Gervásio Annes Degrazia, Mitja Ferlan, and David L. Toll

partitioning The effect of the soil and water heat storage on the hourly energy balance closure was examined by comparison of the slope of the linear fit between net radiation (i.e., R n ) and the energy budget components ( H , LE, F g , and ΔG ; Fig. 3 ). When ΔG was not included, the slope of the linear regression was 0.64, 0.56, and 0.62, with R 2 of 0.85, 0.79, and 0.77, for Fallow 1, Rice, and Fallow 2, respectively, indicating that in none of the periods is the net radiation accounted for by

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A. E. Gargett, T. B. Sanford, and T. R. Osborn

energy budget; however, conditions 3 h earlier allow an approximate balance between two sources, wind forcing and an unstable buoyancy flux, and a single sink due to dissipation. The energy deficit indicated at the time of C28 could be supplied by running down the tqrbulent kinetic energy field over an estimated tithe scale of -4 h. It could obviously be supplied in other ways, for example if the mean velocity field of the mixed layer were not slablike, or if advection or other non-Iocal effects were

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Christof Lorenz, Harald Kunstmann, Balaji Devaraju, Mohammad J. Tourian, Nico Sneeuw, and Johannes Riegger

balance equations, wherein runoff is computed from a combination of precipitation and evapotranspiration in addition to water storage changes. Such water budget–based methods have already been applied by Sheffield et al. (2009) , who used GRACE and other remotely sensed data for computing streamflow from the Mississippi basin. Syed et al. (2005) used an atmospheric water balance for estimating discharge over the Amazon and Mississippi basins and, in the following years, total freshwater discharge

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