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Sasha Ivans, Lawrence Hipps, A. Joshua Leffler, and Carolyn Y. Ivans

ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased for both species at roughly the same rate. In this current study, the main objective is to examine the response of water vapor and CO 2 exchanges to seasonal changes of precipitation and intermittent rain events in crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron desertorum ), sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata ), and juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma ) ecosystems using eddy covariance measurements. Evaluation of these exchanges and their response to the intermittency of precipitation is

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S. K. Deb, C. M. Kishtawal, P. K. Pal, and P. C. Joshi

. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 3 – 15 . Holmlund , K. , 1993 : Operational water vapor wind vectors from Meteosat imagery. Proc. Second Workshop on Wind Extraction from Operational Satellite Data, Tokyo, Japan, EUMETSAT, 77–84 . Holmlund , K. , 1995 : Half hourly wind data from satellite derived water vapour measurements. Adv. Space Res. , 16 , 10 . 59 – 68 . Holmlund , K. , 1998 : The utilization of statistical properties of satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors to derive quality

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David K. Adams, Rui M. S. Fernandes, and Jair M. F. Maia

, M. , and Raabe A. , 2007 : Preconditions to ground-based water vapour tomography . Ann. Geophys. , 25 , 1727 – 1734 . Betts, A. K. , and Jakob C. , 2002 : Study of diurnal convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 , 4732 , doi:10.1029/2002JD002264 . Bevis, M. , Businger S. , Herring T. A. , Rocken C. , Anthes R. , and Ware R. H. , 1992 : GPS meteorology: Sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the global positioning

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Bo Sun and Huijun Wang

Asian winter monsoon and its interannual–interdecadal variability are closely associated with the snowstorm activities ( Wang and He 2012 , 2013 ). Sun et al. (2009) searched for the causes of a heavy snowstorm over the northeastern parts of China in March 2007 and suggested that strong anomalous southerly water vapor transport (WVT) before the event greatly favored its occurrence. The anomalous WVT was mainly caused by anomalous atmospheric circulations, which were associated with anomalous

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Yi Shi, Zhihong Jiang, Zhengyu Liu, and Laurent Li

). It is of great significance to quantitatively determine the moisture source of the monsoon rainfall for its different phases. Early research mainly used an Eulerian approach to analyze moisture transport pathways. For the rainy period in South China, Lin et al. (2014) showed that southwesterly water vapor transports carrying moisture from the Bay of Bengal, the west Pacific, and the southwest side of the Tibetan Plateau are major pathways. For the mei-yu rainy season in the Yangtze River Valley

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J. P. Evans

water vapor contributing to some of these storm events is dominated by a southerly flux. In fact, Evans and Smith (2006) showed that though a relatively small number of events are dominated by southerly fluxes, these events are very large and, hence, any change in the number of these events can have a significant influence on the total of freshwater resources within the Euphrates–Tigris watershed. Growing acceptance of the reality of global warming has recently led to an increase in the

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V. Isaac and W. A. van Wijngaarden

1. Introduction A preponderance of evidence has accumulated over the last two decades showing that the global average temperature is increasing primarily as a result of increased greenhouse gas emissions ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). The Clausius–Clapeyron equation shows that saturation vapor pressure increases exponentially with temperature. Hence, one expects atmospheric water vapor pressure to increase assuming relative humidity remains unchanged ( Sherwood and Meyer 2006 ). This is important as

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S. K. Deb, C. M. Kishtawal, and P. K. Pal

. (2001) had shown using this model that on average, assimilation of the GOES winds leads to statistically significant improvements for all forecast periods, with the relative reductions in track error ranging from 5% at 12 h to 12% at 36 h. The initiation of recent operational derivation of water vapor winds ( Kishtawal et al. 2009 ) from the water vapor imagers from Indian geostationary satellite Kalpana-1 at the Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, India, has given us an opportunity

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H. W. Loescher, C. V. Hanson, and T. W. Ocheltree

1. Introduction Ever since Empedocles described the four basic elements in the fifth century BCE, scientists have studied water vapor in the atmosphere and how it is transported throughout terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems ( Wright 1981 ; Waterfield 2000 ). Eddy covariance (EC) is a direct, robust, nondestructive micrometeorological approach derived through the simplification of the conservation equation ( Loescher et al. 2006 ; Baldocchi 2003 ; Shen and Leclerc 1997 ; Kaimal and Wyngaard

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Markus Kunze, Peter Braesicke, Ulrike Langematz, Gabriele Stiller, Slimane Bekki, Christoph Brühl, Martyn Chipperfield, Martin Dameris, Rolando Garcia, and Marco Giorgetta

–1978. Climatic Change , 6 , 287 – 301 . Mote , W. P. , and Coauthors , 1996 : An atmospheric tape recorder: The imprint of tropical tropopause temperatures on stratospheric water vapour. J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 3989 – 4006 . Oikonomou , E. K. , and A. O’Neill , 2006 : Evaluation of ozone and water vapor fields from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-40 during 1991–1999 in comparison with UARS satellite and MOZAIC aircraft observations. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D14109 . doi:10.1029/2004JD005341

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