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Frank Woodcock and Diana J. M. Greenslade

the error in wave forecasts arises from errors in the surface winds (in deep water at least), this should lead to improved predictions of ocean waves. There are also connections here with data assimilation methods that could be explored further. For example, the corrections based on the training sets could feed into estimates of the magnitude of the model prediction error that are required for data assimilation schemes. Indeed, the relationship between the corrections at neighboring sites could

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Erik van Sebille and Peter Jan van Leeuwen

located in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The legitimacy of using such a model can be disputed, as waves and currents are not well represented, thereby strongly underestimating the advective transport of energy. This energy transfer through waves can, however, be an important factor in baroclinic processes such as the MOC (e.g., Saenko et al. 2002 ). The way in which perturbations can radiate energy through a basin was investigated by Johnson and Marshall (2002a , b ). In their high

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Luc Lenain and Nick Pizzo

1. Introduction Deep-water surface gravity waves play a crucial role in the marine boundary layer, modulating the exchange of mass, momentum, heat, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Melville 1996 ; Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Irrotational surface waves have particle orbits that are not closed, but instead are slightly elliptic, leading to a drift in their direction of wave propagation, known as Stokes drift. This drift is usually inferred from the directional surface wave spectrum

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L. C. Bender III, N. L. Guinasso Jr., J. N. Walpert, and S. D. Howden

attenuation be adjusted to remove only the electronic and digitization noise. Furthermore, using an autocovariance estimate to determine the acceleration spectra allows one to eliminate frequency bins at very low frequencies, where no real wave energy is expected to exist. b. Wave model validation Significant wave heights determined from pitch and roll buoys are regularly used to validate numerical ocean wave model results. For example, Forristall (2007) compared hindcasts using Oceanweather’s standard

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S. T. Cole, D. L. Rudnick, B. A. Hodges, and J. P. Martin

1. Introduction Vertical mixing in the deep ocean, which keeps the ocean stratified and helps to maintain global overturning circulation, is primarily accomplished by the dissipation of internal waves. Internal waves are forced by basin-scale winds and tides and dissipate energy to small-scale turbulence. Tidal and wind dissipation are estimated to be of roughly equal importance to maintaining open ocean stratification ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ; Garrett and Kunze 2007

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Daniel Bourgault and Daniel E. Kelley

1. Introduction Diverse observational case studies suggest that the breaking of high-frequency interfacial solitary waves (ISWs) on sloping boundaries may be an important generator of vertical mixing in coastal waters (e.g., MacIntyre et al. 1999 ; Bourgault and Kelley 2003 ; Klymak and Moum 2003 ; Moum et al. 2003 ). Since mixing is important to many aspects of coastal ocean dynamics, these observations call for the development of a model capable of predicting ISW generation, propagation

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Gil Lemos, Alvaro Semedo, Mikhail Dobrynin, Melisa Menendez, and Pedro M. A. Miranda

models ( Wang et al. 2010 ). Under the auspices of the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate projections (COWCLIP) project ( Hemer et al. 2010 , 2012 ), supported by the World Climate Research Program–Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (WCRP-JCOMM), several dynamical and statistical global wave climate projections have recently been produced. The first studies were based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) GCM climate simulations for the forcing

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R. C. Musgrave

1. Introduction Coastal trapped waves form a distinct class of wave motions in the ocean, relying on the presence of a topographic waveguide for their propagation. Unlike freely propagating inertia–gravity waves, there are no lower frequency limits for coastal trapped waves, which makes them an important mechanism for the transfer of subinertial energy along coastlines. They are often wind driven (e.g., Clarke 1977 ), but at high latitudes can be tidally driven (e.g., Cartwright 1969 ), and

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Ashley Ellenson and H. Tuba Özkan-Haller

system can provide timely information that can guide emergency response procedures or inform marine users about when marine conditions are safe enough to interface with the ocean. Wave predictions can be made on global or regional scales ( Fan et al. 2012 ; Monbaliu et al. 2000 ). The range of scales allows for the implementation of wave predictions in different contexts. Global predictions can be used to assess potential resources for wave energy harvesting or the exploration of Earth system

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Jesse M. Cusack, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, and James B. Girton

1. Introduction Lee waves can be generally defined as internal gravity waves generated by the interaction of a quasi-steady stratified flow with topography. Observations of such phenomena in the ocean are rare, with notable examples including high-frequency, tidally forced waves in the lee of ridges (e.g., Pinkel et al. 2012 ; Alford et al. 2014 ). Propagating waves must have a frequency between the local inertial frequency f and buoyancy frequency N , which precludes their generation in

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