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Oliver Bühler

1. Introduction The shallow-water system has a long history of use as a paradigm for three-dimensional rotating stratified flow. The restriction to two dimensions not only gives physical simplification but also offers clear computational advantages. A case in point is the study of interactions between small-scale gravity waves and large-scale balanced, or potential-vorticity-controlled, motions in the atmosphere. The importance of such interactions for chemical, climate, and weather predictions

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Thomas R. Parish, Yuhang Wang, and David H. Bromwich

SAO. 2. Discussion Surface pressure changes during both the austral autumn and springtime transitional periods appear to be maximized over the high interior of Antarctica and decrease rapidly northward from the continental coastline such that the phase of the mass loading cycle becomes reversed between 50° and 60°S (see Schwerdtfeger 1984 , Fig. 6.8). Data collected by automatic weather stations situated atop the Antarctic interior (e.g., Keller et al. 1994 ) evoke a similar interpretation. The

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Bo R. Döös

beenvery clearly demonstrated that the heat sources andsinks of the earth are important factors in the generation of weather systems. A number of investigationshave dealt with the modification of air masses movingover these heat sources and sinks. Burke (1945) andKlein (1946) studied the transformation of polarcontinental to polar-maritime air at the east coastof North America. Craddock (1951) studied thewarming of air masses over eastern North Atlantic,and Burbridge (1951) made a study of the

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Mark A. Bourassa, Dayton G. Vincent, and W. L. Wood

precipitation that occur at higher latitudes, as well as persistent cloud cover in the deep Tropics (e.g., in the intertropical convergence zone). Accurate estimates of moisture transport require accurate estimates of surface evaporation and stress. Inaccurate estimates can cause significant errors in long-term weather forecasts and in climate models. An improved air–sea interaction parameterization is developed, herein, by considering the effects of capillary waves, which in the absence of steep long waves

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Richard J. Reed

Inst. Oceanog. UnW. Calay., 6, 122 pp.Klein, W. H., 1946: Letter to the editor. Modification of polar air over water. J. Meteor., 3, 100-101.Petterssen, S., 1950: Some aspects of the general circulation of the atmosphere. Cent. Proc. 7. meteor. SOL, London, 120-156.Petterssen, S., 1956: Weather analysis and forecasting, Volume I. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 428 pp.Reed, R. J., 1957 : A graphical method for preparing 1000-millibar prognostic charts. J. Meteor., 14, 65-70.Sanders

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Stephen H. Schneider

, L., and K. Telegades, 1974: Inadvertent large-scale weather modifications. Weather and Climate Modification, W. N. Hess, Ed., Wiley, 867-726.Manabe, S., 1971,: Estimates of future changes of climate due to increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the air. Man's Impact on Climate, W. H. Matthews, W. W. Kellogg and G. D. Robinson, Eds., The MIT Press, p. 256.--, and R. T. Wetherald, 1967: Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of relative humidity. J. Atmos

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John R. Goss and F. A. Brooks

cloudless skies andinterpreted for the humidity at 1400 hours on the previous day. With these constants, useful estimates ofthe average nighttime atmospheric radiation rate can be computed from the local 1400-hours vapor pressureand average nocturnal air temperature as reported by all first-order U. S. Weather Bureau stations. Withcareful interpretation of weather records, the probable error will be about 3 per cent. Comparisons are madewith Loennquist's formula and with calculations by atmospheric

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Jun-Ichi Yano and Mitchell W. Moncrieff

organization occur within the 20-day period in conditions of varying large-scale forcing ( Houze and Betts 1981 ). After introducing the basic model setup in the next section, section 3 presents an overview of the GATE Phase III period, including a full-resolution simulation as a baseline calculation. Issues involved with the extension of the highly truncated NAM–SCA to the case with the time-varying large-scale forcing are stated in section 4 . Section 5 describes modifications to the single

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Bas Crezee, Hanna Joos, and Heini Wernli

1. Introduction Extratropical cyclones affect midlatitude weather through the accompanying winds and strong precipitation. The intensification of an extratropical cyclone can be understood through the mutual interaction between an upper-level potential vorticity (PV) anomaly of stratospheric origin, a low-level PV anomaly of diabatic origin, and a surface potential temperature anomaly (e.g., Davis and Emanuel 1991 ). This low-level positive PV anomaly not only impacts cyclone intensification

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Woosub Roh and Masaki Satoh

1. Introduction Tropical precipitation systems make important contributions to the global energy budget and play a key role in climate and weather modeling. Representations of tropical precipitation systems by high-resolution nonhydrostatic models, such as cloud system–resolving models (CSRM) without cumulus parameterization, have successfully reproduced realistic structures of cloud systems associated with precipitation, such as the Madden–Julian oscillation ( Miura et al. 2007 ). Nevertheless

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