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Fiona Johnson and Ashish Sharma

: Evaluation over Australia. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L17715 . doi:10.1029/2006GL027114 . 10.1029/2006GL027114 Rotstayn, L. D. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Have Australian rainfall and cloudiness increased due to the remote effects of Asian anthropogenic aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D09202 . doi:10.1029/2006JD007712 . Seidel, D. J. , Fu Q. , Randel W. J. , and Reichler T. J. , 2008 : Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geosci. , 1 , 21 – 24 . 10

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Michael Wehner, David R. Easterling, Jay H. Lawrimore, Richard R. Heim Jr., Russell S. Vose, and Benjamin D. Santer

masked the severity of recent drought in the western United States caused by increases in air temperature. Relevant to the current investigation is the study by Burke et al. (2006) , which found a detectible contribution from anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to the global drying that has been observed since 1980. The Burke et al. (2006) study relied on the PDSI to measure drought, using one of the 19 climate models considered here. Because the PDSI is generally more sensitive to

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Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd and Anthony S. Kiem

through starvation ( Shaw 1984 ). Ominously, the 1820s–30s and early 1700s were both associated with higher proportions of El Niño events than we have observed over the period for which we have instrumental rainfall/streamflow records, which clearly indicates that the “worst drought on record” is unlikely to be the “worst drought possible,” irrespective of the potential effects of anthropogenic climate change. A reconstruction of the time series of changes in the IPO was developed by Verdon and

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Jing Zhang and John E. Walsh

temperature and precipitation decreased in the deforested regions. Chalita and Le Treut (1994) found an increase in snow cover when boreal forest is removed. Foley et al. (1994) investigated the effects of the northward extension of boreal forests on the mid-Holocene climate from palaeobotanical data and found that the northward extension of boreal forests can give rise to an additional warming of 4°C in spring and 1°C in the other seasons besides the warming from orbital variations alone. Levis et

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, and Witold F. Krajewski

tied to both natural (terrain, forest cover, soil properties, drainage network structure) and anthropogenically altered properties (urbanization, agricultural practice, regulation through dams and reservoirs) of the land surface, time trends in climate and land use, and dependence of flood properties on basin scale. The flood of record at many locations in the Delaware River basin is from Hurricane Diane in August 1955 (following days after Hurricane Connie). We focus particular attention in this

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Fred Moshary, and Michael Piasecki

mean sea level). Lake Azuéi is a slightly smaller and less saline lake located about 50 m above Lake Enriquillo. The lakes are surrounded by two high-elevation sierras to the north [Neyba, ~2400 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and south (Bahoruco, ~2700 m MSL), providing a large catchment area while isolating the watershed from the ocean and, along with the mountain shadow effects of the much higher Central Range, the approaching northeasterly trade winds. The lakes have been experiencing dramatic

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Lennert B. Stap, Bart J. J. M. van den Hurk, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, and Roel A. J. Neggers

1. Introduction A recent number of major heat wave and drought events in Europe, the United States, and Russia have triggered considerable research aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms, trends, socioeconomic effects, predictability, and future projections (e.g., Zaitchik et al. 2006 ; Ciais et al. 2005 ; Fischer et al. 2007 ; Dole et al. 2011 ; Sheffield et al. 2012 ). A relationship between temperature extremes and land surface conditions is explored in various studies

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Emma E. Daniels and, Ronald W. A. Hutjes, Geert Lenderink, Reinder J. Ronda and, and Albert A. M. Holtslag

reference run are compared to observations. Next, the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, the resulting soil moisture–precipitation feedback, and the effects of urban areas are evaluated, followed by the discussion and conclusions. 2. Methods a. Study area Our study area, the Netherlands, is located in northwest Europe along the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean (see Fig. 1 ). The vicinity to these water bodies has great influence on weather in the Netherlands and causes the typical mild winters and

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Nathalie Voisin, Andrew W. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

basins Nine primary basins were selected from among the 26 simulated by Nijssen et al. (2001b) based on the presence of minimal anthropogenic effects (primarily reservoir storage and diversion), availability of observed river discharge, and our desire to represent a range of hydroclimatic conditions. Observed discharge data come from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC). Because there is no specific calibration of the VIC model in this analysis (e.g., to minimize differences between simulated and

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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

perfect records of reality, the ability of GCMs to modify their forcings make them a useful tool for connecting anthropogenic emissions and effects on precipitation and evaporation at large scales ( Déqué 2007 ). Although hydrological modules (precipitation, evaporation, land use) are also used within the GCMs, they are less reliable for analysis of surface and groundwater water balances in local river basins. The leading tools for these purposes are usually hydrological and agricultural models, used

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