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Xun Jiang, Steven Pawson, Charles D. Camp, J. Eric Nielsen, Run-Lie Shia, Ting Liao, Varavut Limpasuvan, and Yuk L. Yung

stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 3919 – 3928 . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30937 – 30946 . Baldwin , M. P. , D. B. Stephenson , and I. T. Jolliffe , 2008 : Spatial weighting and iterative projection methods for EOFs. J. Climate , in press . Butchart , N. , J. A. Ustin , J. R. Knight , A. A. Scaife , and M. L. Gallani , 2000 : The response

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Wenqi Zhang and Dehai Luo

Arctic sea ice cover . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L01703 , . 10.1029/2007GL031972 Davini , P. , C. Cagnazzo , R. Neale , and J. Tribbia , 2012 : Coupling between Greenland blocking and the North Atlantic Oscillation pattern . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L14701 , . 10.1029/2012GL052315 Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation

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Paul E. Roundy

of westerly background wind, extratropical waves paralleling the tropics can also influence momentum in the equatorial waveguide ( Hoskins and Yang 2000 ). Except for the connections to dry and moist Kelvin waves and correlations between the MJO and teleconnection patterns like the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (e.g., Lin et al. 2009 ; L’Heureux and Higgins 2008 ) and breaking Rossby waves ( Moore et al. 2010 ), few details are widely known about the Western Hemisphere

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Pallav Ray, Chidong Zhang, Jim Dudhia, and Shuyi S. Chen

GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and arctic air-mass datasets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 112 , 693 – 709 . Bladé , I. , and D. L. Hartmann , 1993 : Tropical intraseasonal oscillation in a simple nonlinear model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 2922 – 2939 . Chen , S. S. , B. E. Mapes , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1996 : Multiscale variability of deep convection in relation to large-scale circulation in TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 1380 – 1409 . Dudhia , J. , 1989 : Numerical study

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R-C. Ren and Ming Cai

exhibit a standing oscillation, referred to as the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). The positive correlation between the Antarctic sea level pressure anomalies and the geopotential height anomalies above often makes the AAO synonymous to the SAM. The dominant variability of the global atmospheric mass distribution also appears to be associated with the SAM ( Trenberth et al. 2005 ). Accompanying the meridional ringlike geopotential anomalies are negatively correlated subtropical and polar westerly jet

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Tsing-Chang Chen and Jau-Ming Chen

, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and arctic air-mass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693–709. Chen, T.-C., and M.-C. Yen, 1991: Interaction between intraseasonal oscillations of the midlatitude flow and tropical convection during 1979 northern summer: The Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 4, 653–671. Colton, D. E., 1973: Barotropic scale interaction in the tropical upper troposphere during the northern summer. J

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G. E. Birchfield, Johannes Weertman, and Albert T. Lunde

Baffin Island as a more propitious inception point for an ice sheet. Baffin Island is a large island in the eastern Canadian Arctic with an even larger and higher plat6au than northern Labrador, extending more or less continuously from 66 to 74-N (Bird, 1976, Table 10). There are sizable ice caps on the island at the present time as shown in Fig. l a. Bird (1976) estimates that of the 150 000 km2 of per manent ice in Arctic ~Canada, almost one third of it is on Baffin Island and Bylot Island. The

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A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, R. W. Nightingale, W. G. Uplinger, G. A. Ely, J. F. Potter, D. J. Wuebbles, P. S. Connell, and D. E. Kinnison

remained highly depleted. These observations are consistent with the removal of gaseousHNO3 through the formation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and the removal of CIONO2 throughheterogeneous reactions on the particle surfaces. They also suggest substantial denitrification of the lower Antarctic vortex through sedimentation of PSC particles. In the Northern Hemisphere winter of 1992/93 far fewerPSCs were observed in the Arctic lower-stratosphere vortex, which had shorter periods and more

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Masaru Inatsu, Naoto Nakano, and Hitoshi Mukougawa

. Recently, Tang et al. (2007) suggested that the atmospheric large-scale motion is less (more) predictable in the negative (positive) phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). As for a low-dimensional system, Mukougawa et al. (1991) and Yamane and Yoden (1997) successfully captured a tendency that the atmospheric flow is more (less) predictable when it approaches (leaves) a quasi-stationary state or a weather regime. The above two studies only shed light on a particular relationship between

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Benjamin A. Cash, Paul J. Kushner, and Geoffrey K. Vallis

that is the building block of both the NAO and the leading EOF. Acknowledgments We are grateful for comments from two anonymous reviewers. BAC was supported by the Princeton AOS program and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-01ER63256). GKV acknowledges the support of the NSF. REFERENCES Ambaum , M. H. P. , B. J. Hoskins , and D. B. Stephenson , 2001 : Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate , 14 , 3495 – 3507 . Baldwin , M. P. , 2001 : Annular modes in

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