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Marlene Kretschmer, Dim Coumou, Jonathan F. Donges, and Jakob Runge

1. Introduction The recent cold winters in North America and Eurasia were characterized by a meandering jet stream pattern that allowed cold Arctic air to reach lower latitudes ( Cohen et al. 2014b ). Moreover, these winters were dominated by a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation index (AO), which is usually associated with pronounced meridional wind patterns, whereas in a positive AO phase strong zonal flow dominates the wind field. Although a negative AO and meandering flow patterns have

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Jiankai Zhang, Fei Xie, Wenshou Tian, Yuanyuan Han, Kequan Zhang, Yulei Qi, Martyn Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Jinlong Huang, and Jianchuan Shu

such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (e.g., Fujiwara et al. 1998 ; Tian et al. 2007 ; C. Liu et al. 2009 ; Weare 2010 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Y. Zhang et al. 2015 ), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (e.g., Ziemke and Chandra 1999 ; Cagnazzo et al. 2009 ; Randel et al. 2009 ; Xie et al. 2014a , b ; J. Zhang et al. 2015a , b ), the quasi-biennial oscillation (e.g., Angell and Korshover 1973 ; Bowman 1989 ; Tung and Yang 1994 ; Dhomse 2006; Li and Tung 2014 ), and the Arctic Oscillation

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Dehai Luo, Yiqing Xiao, Yina Diao, Aiguo Dai, Christian L. E. Franzke, and Ian Simmonds

1. Introduction In Luo et al. (2016 , hereafter Part I ) the regression analysis of the winter (DJF)-mean 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies revealed that the winter sea ice loss over the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS) is associated with the Ural blocking (UB) pattern and the positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO + ) and is followed by a winter-mean warm Arctic–cold Eurasian (WACE) temperature pattern, while the overall atmospheric response to arctic sea ice loss resembles a negative

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Yong Liu, Huopo Chen, Guoqing Zhang, Jianqi Sun, Hua Li, and Huijun Wang

Arctic sea ice loss plays an important role in the variation in summer precipitation in China ( He et al. 2018 ; Li et al. 2018 ; Shen et al. 2019 ). The reduction in June sea ice over the Barents Sea can trigger a meridional overturning wave-like pattern extending toward the midlatitudes and then resulting in a tripole precipitation pattern over East Asia ( He et al. 2018 ). Li et al. (2018) also suggested that the Barents Sea ice decline in spring, along with the subsequently reduced snow cover

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Rasmus A. Pedersen, Ivana Cvijanovic, Peter L. Langen, and Bo M. Vinther

East Asian midlatitudes), it is clear that other regions are sensitive to the location of the sea ice loss. The North Atlantic Oscillation in particular exhibits a high sensitivity. This study, in line with several previous studies, demonstrates a link between the Arctic sea ice cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation. While no clear trend is found in the NAO index, the spatial structure of the NAO pattern appears sensitive to the location of the ice loss. We find that the sea ice loss in the

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Sergei Kirillov, Igor Dmitrenko, Bruno Tremblay, Yves Gratton, David Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

Arctic Oscillation and North Pacific index) and related atmospheric pressure patterns (viz., the Beaufort Sea high and the Aleutian low). The long-term and seasonal changes of upwelling-favorable wind occurrence over the Mackenzie slope help us to demonstrate how the probability of upwelling events changes in time. The overall goal of the current study is to demonstrate the linkage between atmospheric wind forcing and changes in the offshore vertical thermohaline structure along the southern Beaufort

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James Overland, Jennifer A. Francis, Richard Hall, Edward Hanna, Seong-Joong Kim, and Timo Vihma

changes on midlatitude weather depends on further understanding of 1) the fundamental dynamics of atmospheric circulation features, such as jet stream meanders, blockings, polarity of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), teleconnections, stratosphere–troposphere interactions, wave train propagation, and shifts in planetary wavenumbers; and 2) the atmospheric response to Arctic amplification, that is, disproportionate increases in Arctic temperatures due to a number of predominantly positive feedback processes

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Shangfeng Chen, Renguang Wu, and Yong Liu

, has a close relationship to the wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO). Gamiz-Fortis et al. (2011) examined the dominant patterns of monthly land surface temperature variability over Europe. Chen et al. (2016) analyzed the interannual variation of summer SAT over northeastern Asia and its associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. The first mode, featuring a homogeneous anomaly, has a close connection with the Eurasian teleconnection pattern. Wu et al. (2010 , 2011 , 2014b ) identified

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Armin Köhl and Nuno Serra

variability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) induces an Arctic basinwide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies ( Proshutinsky and Johnson 1997 ; Maslowski et al. 2000 ). The Beaufort Gyre is shown to accumulate freshwater under anticyclonic wind forcing due to Ekman pumping and to release it when the wind is weaker or cyclonic ( Proshutinsky et al. 2002 ). Analyzing the switch from a high North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) state to low NAO, Brauch and Gerdes (2005) found that the

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Xiaodan Chen, Dehai Luo, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

decline in winter . J. Climate , 30 , 2639 – 2654 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0548.1 Gong , T. , S. Feldstein , and S. Lee , 2017 : The role of downward infrared radiation in the recent Arctic winter warming trend . J. Climate , 30 , 4937 – 4949 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0180.1 Jung , T. , and M. Hilmer , 2001 : The link between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait

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