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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

). Independent of evidence from remote sensing, climate research had already demonstrated that large-scale drying could be explained by factors external to the region, namely, changes in the surface temperature of the global oceans ( Folland et al. 1986 ), with no need to invoke regional-scale land degradation and its interaction with atmospheric dynamics as originally envisaged. More recent research has confirmed the dominant role of global sea surface temperature patterns in driving the twentieth

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Patrick D. Broxton, Xubin Zeng, William Scheftic, and Peter A. Troch

1. Introduction Vegetation cover influences the land–atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, and carbon (e.g., Dickinson et al. 1986 ; Sellers et al. 1996 ; Bonan 1996 ; Dai et al. 2003 ). Green vegetation fraction (GVF; Deardorff 1978 ) is widely used in global models along with many other applications such as studies of land-cover (LC) change. Along with leaf area index (LAI; Myneni et al. 2002 ), GVF is used to describe the abundance of vegetation in most global models. Some models

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Trevor Lewis and Walter Skinner

variations in land cover, such as vegetation and surface water ( Roy et al., 1972 ; Blackwell et al., 1980 ; Cermak et al., 1992 ; Lewis and Wang, 1992 ; Lewis and Wang, 1998 ). These effects must be modeled and accounted for. The underground temperature anomalies from surface cover changes, both temporal and spatial, have been shown to be both consistently and accurately predicted by simple models. GST histories inverted from borehole temperatures are site specific. To reach conclusions on climatic

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

becomes strong after significant damage has already occurred to the vegetation ( Moran 2003 ). A faster response signal of incipient drought stress may be conveyed through remotely sensed maps of land surface temperature (LST), retrieved using satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) observations ( Anderson et al. 2013 ). As the amount of root zone moisture decreases, less energy is used to evaporate and transpire water, thereby causing canopy temperatures to elevate in comparison with unstressed

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Jiangfeng Wei, Paul A. Dirmeyer, and Zhichang Guo

intraseasonal variability of precipitation has a strong influence on the soil moisture variability ( Wei et al. 2008 ), but little study has been performed on the connection between this variability and land–atmosphere coupling. By comparison, the connection between intraseasonal variability and air–sea interaction has been studied much better (e.g., Pegion and Kirtman 2008a , b ). In this paper, GLACE-type experiments with the COLA AGCM coupled to three land models are performed. We examine the large

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Daniel R. Cheresnick and Jeffrey B. Basara
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Gokhan Kirkil, Jeff Mirocha, Elie Bou-Zeid, Fotini Katopodes Chow, and Branko Kosović

1. Introduction The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the lowest layer of the earth’s atmosphere through which exchanges of momentum, energy, and other chemical species with the surface are transported vertically, via turbulent motions, on a time scale that is rapid in comparison with exchanges within the free atmosphere above (e.g., Stull 1988 ). As such, the ABL plays a critical role in both the evolution of flow near the surface, and in the evolution of larger-scale weather phenomena as

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Timothy DelSole, Mei Zhao, and Paul Dirmeyer

circulation that is more complicated than the regional land–atmosphere interaction discussed earlier. Finally, the maximum height tends to be larger downwind from coastal boundaries and insignificant over the oceans, reflecting the moderating effect of maritime air on land–atmosphere feedback. We performed several other statistical analyses of the deep tropics but were not able to formulate a satisfactory picture of why this region stands out relative to midlatitudes. We stress, however, that the mere

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Mark A. Friedl, and Michael B. Ek

and feedbacks caused by land–atmosphere interactions has been under scrutiny. For example, results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS; Henderson-Sellers et al. 1996 ) experiments have shown that simulated fluxes can be quite sensitive to atmospheric feedbacks ( Liu et al. 2003 , 2004 , 2005 ). As a result, it is clear that the land surface and planetary boundary layer cannot be realistically simulated independently of one another, and that land

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Yongqiang Liu and Roni Avissar

China. They also found that soil moisture has a much stronger persistence than soil temperature. Two types of mechanism contribute to persistence in the land–atmosphere system: (i) external forcings, including the atmospheric dynamics that produce global circulation systems and control precipitation and cloudiness; and (ii) internal forcings, which consist of self-feedbacks and interactions within the system. Considering that GCMs need very large computing resources and account for a large number of

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