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Zachary R. Hansen, Larissa E. Back, and Peigen Zhou

heating on convective intensity. The tested diurnal cycle mechanism was proposed to work due to the interaction between a warmer land surface and a free troposphere influenced by oceanic convection. This would produce enhanced CAPE, leading to more intense convection over the island, even after using sampling to account for potentially enhanced precipitation. In the real world, we were able to illustrate that the land–ocean contrast in lightning can be viewed independently from large

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Yanping Li and R. E. Carbone

the tropical Andes through gravity waves. A gravity wave mechanism is proposed by Mapes et al. (2003a) for the Panama Bight, which involves the generation of thermally forced gravity waves in the deep heated boundary layer over the nearby Andes. Daytime heating over the Andes triggers gravity wave motion, resulting in ascent that propagates westward over the Pacific Ocean. Recently the international field campaign the Variability of the American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land

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Lars R. Schade and Kerry A. Emanuel

aforementioned problems of coarse resolution and thus weak storms. Sutyrin et al. (1979) performed simulations with a coupled model of the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers and concluded that the “interaction is so strong that the integral heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean into the atmosphere may change significantly within a few hours and influence the intensity of the tropical cyclone.” Sutyrin and Khain (1984) coupled an axisymmetric hurricane model to a 3D ocean model and were the first

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J. Neumann and Y. Mahrer

VOLU~tE28 ,1962: The sea breeze as a function of the prevailing synoptic situation. J. Atmos. Sci., 19, 244-250.John, F., 1952: An integration of parabolic equations by difference methods. Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 5, 155-211.Kuo, H. I,., 1968: The thermal interaction between the atmosphere and the earth and propagation of diurnal temperature waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 682-706.Lettau, H. H., and B. Davidson, 1957: Exploring the Atmosphere's First Mile, Vol. 2. New York, Pergamon Press, 377

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G. A. Dalu, R. A. Pielke, M. Baldi, and X. Zeng

land surface-atmosphere interactions such as FIFE (Sellers et al. 1992;Betts and Beljaars 1993) in Kansas; BOREAS (seeSellers et al. 1995) in Saskatchewan and Manitoba,Canada; LOTREX (Schgdler et al. 1990) in Hildesheimer B6rde, Germany; EFEDA (Bolle et al. 1993) inSpain; HAPEX-MOBILHY (Andr6 et al. 1989b; Noilhan et al. 1991) in France; HAPEX-NIGER92 (e.g.,Gash et al. 1991) in Niger; SEBEX (Wallace et al.1991 ) in the Sahel of Africa; and in the Amazon region(e.g., Shuttleworth 1985; Wright et al

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William R. Burrows

with scale are generally not close to --3, suggest these scales do not form an inertial subrange. 5) The contributions of interactions of scales 0 ~ n ~ 6, 7 ~ n ~ 14 and 15 ~ n ~ 24 to the total nonlinear horizontal transfer of kinetic energy in each scale 0~n~24 were isolated, and the method is suggested asa means of diagnosing the impact of dissipation and heating parameterizations upon all scales of motionin models of the atmosphere. Interactions involving scales 7 ~ n ~ 14 are quite active

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K. Franklin Evans and Graeme L. Stephens

colunms, hollow columns, hexagonal plates, planar rosettes, and equivalent-volume spheres), and 18 Gammasize distributions N = aD~ exp[-(a + 3.67)D/Dm](D,, = 70, 100, 150, 250, 400, 700/zm and a = 0, 1,2). This combination of parameters results in 90 different cirrus-cloud cases for each atmosphere profileand for each surface type (i.e., land and water surfaces). The doubling-adding technique is carried outwith eight Lobatto quadrature angles per hemisphere,but results are presented only for the nadir

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Mohamed S. Ghonima, Thijs Heus, Joel R. Norris, and Jan Kleissl

tendencies for the case with ocean–land interaction. Meteorological observations are also not sufficient to compute advection as continuously operating, horizontally displaced profiles would be required. As an alternative, we introduce a simple model to apply large-scale horizontal forcings ( , ) to the LES as follows: where z represents the LES domain height and is the large-scale horizontal surface wind reported hourly from seven METAR stations (32.5–33.3°N, 117°–118°W) on the southern California

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V. Hayashi and D. G. Golder

etary waves. Submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan.Kao, S. K., 1968~ Governing equations and spectra for atmospheric motion and transports in frequency, wave-number space. J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 32-38.--, and H. N. Lee, 1977: The nonlinear interactions and maintenance of the large-scale moving waves in the atmosphere. J.. Atmos. Sci., 34, 471-485. Lau, N. C., 1979: The observed structure of tropospheric stationary waves and the local balances of vorticity and heat. J. Atrhos. Sci., 36

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R. C. Robbins, R. D. Cadle, and D. L. Eckhardt

.The concentration of atmospheric NaCl aerosol hasbeen reported to be 7 pg/m3 on the Florida coast and0.7 pg/m3 at Frankfurt, Germany, while the totalconcentration of atmospheric chloride (aerosol plusgas) over land may average about 70 pg/m3 [l].Concentration measurements of nitrogen oxides innonurban atmospheres are incomplete and inconsistent. Concentrations in polluted and clean atmospheresare indicated, however, by measurements which havebeen made in the Los Angeles atmosphere. Measuredvalues of total

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