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Igor Shulman, James K. Lewis, Alan F. Blumberg, and B. Nicholas Kim

model with greater horizontal resolution showed very similar results with slight differences in the Gulfs of Bohai and Liadong ( Choi 1989 ). In this study, an adaptation of the optimized open boundary conditions presented by Shulman and Lewis (1994 , 1995 , 1996) and Shulman (1997) was tested with respect to the improvement of the model prediction skills of the M 2 tidal amplitudes and phases in the Yellow Sea. In addition, this approach was extended to the assimilation of available sea

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T. B. P. S. Rama V. Krishna, Maithili Sharan, S. G. Gopalakrishnan, and Aditi

( Zilitinkevich and Mironov 1996 ), and laboratory studies ( Ohya et al. 1997 ). In the very stable boundary layer, which is characterized by weak winds and clear skies and corresponds to strong net radiative cooling at the surface, the turbulence is weak, or even intermittent, near the surface and is perhaps layered ( Mahrt et al. 1998 ). Various aspects related to the very stable NBL are described by Derbyshire (1999) and Mahrt (1999) . Weak wind conditions prevail all over the globe for a considerable

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Nelson L. Seaman, Francis L. Ludwig, Evelyn G. Donall, Thomas T. Warner, and Chandrakant M. Bhumralkar

760 .JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME28Numerical Studies of Urban Planetary Boundary-Layer Structure under Realistic Synoptic Conditions NELSON L. SEAMANDepartment of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park; Pennsylvania FRANCIS L. LUDWIG$IU International, Menlo Park; California EVELYN G. DONALL* AND THOMAS T. WARNERDepartment of

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Richard M. Hodur and Stephen D. Buurk

limited-area models is the specification of reasonableboundary conditions. In this paper, the results of the use of one-way interactive boundary conditions in theFleet Numerical Weather Central (FLENUMWEACEN) coarse-mesh tropical cyclone model are discussed. Given analyzed fields in 12 h intervals, boundary values are linearly interpolated in time for eachtime step. Smoothing is done near the boundaries to minimize the excitation of gravity waves. Thisprocedure is carried out through 72 h. The results

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Andrew M. Moore and Christopher J. C. Reason

300 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME23The Response of a Global Ocean General Circulation Model to CHmatological Surface Boundary Conditions for Temperature and SalinityANDREW M. MOORE AND CHRISTOPHER $. C. REASON*CSIRO, Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc, Victoria, Australia(Manuscript received 17 October 1991, in final form 20 April 1992) The resimnse of a global

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Jie Peng, C. S. B. Grimmond, Xinshu Fu, Yuanyong Chang, Guangliang Zhang, Jibing Guo, Chenyang Tang, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Xu, and Jianguo Tan

yield β profiles not suitable for the S-IC analysis. These are classified as nontypical (NT) days and are also removed from the analysis. Therefore, the climatological analysis is for rain- and fog-free conditions. Although the z i ,icf can be retrieved for individual nonrainy β profiles on a day with rain, they are removed to avoid the impact of significantly varying boundary layer structures on rainy day. Thus, the categories of β profiles identified for analysis are clear (CL) and aerosol

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Adrian Jenkins, Hartmut H. Hellmer, and David M. Holland

and freezing entail a transfer of water between the two media, this coupling formally manifests itself in the boundary conditions placed on both the vertical velocity and on the tracer concentrations. However, it is an almost universal practice in numerical modeling of the ocean to regard the sea surface as a permeable, but material, interface—properties may diffuse across it, but no water may be exchanged between the ocean and the overlying medium, be it atmosphere or ice. Huang (1993

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Jubao Zhang and Raymond W. Schmitt

1. Introduction The impact of the upper boundary conditions on the thermohaline circulation with uniform vertical mixing has been studied extensively ( Stommel 1961 ; Bryan 1986 ; Weaver and Hughes 1992 ; Huang 1995 ; Zhang 1998 ; Zhang et al. 1999 ). “Relaxation” boundary conditions have been widely used in climate simulations; these by design force sea surface temperatures and salinities very close to observations. Such boundary conditions lead to a stable thermohaline circulation. While

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Mónica Zamora Zapata, Joel R. Norris, and Jan Kleissl

), covariability effects have been ignored. In this work, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of how coastal Sc cloud dissipation time depends on initial conditions and boundary forcings, with consideration of covariability. We use a large set of 15 variables measured or derived from realistic meteorological conditions for Southern California as input to a two-column mixed-layer model (MLM) to predict dissipation time ( section 2a ). The two columns represent ocean and land conditions and allow the modeling of

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Hui-Ya Chuang and Peter J. Sousounis

on development has effectively been lacking. Other modeling systems have enjoyed limited utility from various routines that generate idealized initial conditions (ICs) and boundary conditions (BCs). For example, Sun and Chern (1994) used uniform zonal flow as initial conditions for the Purdue Mesoscale Model to simulate flow past idealized mountains. Cao and Cho (1995) , as well as Chen and Frank (1993) , described a technique for generating idealized initial and boundary conditions regarding

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