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Alexander Hall and Georgina Endfield

process a set of key themes was identified, falling broadly into four overarching categories: memory and benchmarking extreme winters in the area, the role of place in weather memory, weather memory and nostalgia (specifically in relation to childhood memories), and, finally, the association between weather events and key life events. The Snow Scenes database currently contains 156 participants’ memories of severe winters in Cumbria, consisting of letters, diary entries, postcard entries, audio and

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Safiétou Sanfo, William M. Fonta, Ulrich J. Diasso, Michel P. Nikiéma, John P. A. Lamers, and Jerôme E. Tondoh

). Environmental migration, as a result of environmental and climatic changes, is a dynamic, multifactorial phenomenon that has been the subject of an extensive and long-standing controversy ( McLachlan et al. 2007 ) in part because of a lack of in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between variable environmental changes and migration ( Jónsson 2010 ). Some scholars assert that current climate hazards such as heavy rainfall, drought, flooding, heat waves, delayed onset of the rainy season, a

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Basanta Raj Adhikari

losses, fatality rate, and fatality density was conducted using SPSS. Further, a two-tailed hypothesis test at 95% confidence interval (CI) was performed with one sample t test for testing a statistical significance of mean difference for each district with a mean of national average (1.77 fatality rate per million per year). A GIS was used for encoding the lightning fatality data as per district boundary. GIS is helpful for the integration of district locations with attribute data. The total

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Michael J. Lynch, Paul B. Stretesky, and Michael A. Long

climate change on violent crime. For the purposes of the current study, we draw upon the work of Anderson et al. (2000 , p. 65) and describe the relationship between temperature and violence as the “heat hypothesis,” which suggests that warmer temperatures lead to violence. Our annual analysis of the heat hypothesis begins with an examination of two important concepts that impinge on that suspected relationship: weather and climate, and we look at the difference between them. Next, we review existing

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Alicia Azpeleta Tarancón, Yeon-Su Kim, Thora Padilla, Peter Z. Fulé, and Andrew J. Sánchez Meador

ranges in the southwestern U.S. regions and northern Mexico surrounded by deserts. Sky Islands support high biodiversity and are known for their remarkable levels of endemic species. The Sacramento Mountains Sky Island is shaded, and the MATL boundary is superposed. Under climate change projections, water availability, food security, culture, health, and the economies of many Tribal nations are disproportionately at risk ( Voggesser et al. 2013 ; Jantarasami et al. 2018 ). The degradation of

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Christian Kuhlicke, Torsten Masson, Sarah Kienzler, Tobias Sieg, Annegret H. Thieken, and Heidi Kreibich

and mobile objects as well as to their psychological and health-related integrity. With regard to recovery processes, we focus on how long it took households to recover after the flood event (in months) and how their household situation changed as a result of the flood (i.e., worsened or improved). Companies were asked how long their business activities were interrupted or hampered as a consequence of the flood. Empirically, the current research focuses on the 2013 flood in the Elbe and Danube

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Andrea L. Taylor, Astrid Kause, Barbara Summers, and Melanie Harrowsmith

area do not have perfect deterministic accuracy, this could reflect an appropriate precautionary response. However, where people located far from warning area boundaries overestimate their local warning levels this may lead to “cry wolf” effects, when local conditions are repeatedly less severe than anticipated. While testing this directly is beyond the scope of the current study, it does highlight the value of making it easy for people to identify where their local area lies with respect to

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Alexander Hall

of a nascent private market for weather services in the United States had been boosted in 1953 by the publication of an influential USWB report, “Weather is the Nation’s Business.” This report set clear boundaries for areas and services where the USWB would get involved, stating that the issuance of severe storm warnings endangering life or widespread damage to property are, and should remain, the function of government but special services to industries to effect economies in their operation

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Michael D. Gerst, Melissa A. Kenney, Allison E. Baer, Amanda Speciale, J. Felix Wolfinger, Jon Gottschalck, Scott Handel, Matthew Rosencrans, and David Dewitt

understandability of modified visualizations on the general public and end users. The results from this study provide evidence for which modifications improve the understandability of NOAA climate outlooks, and more generally, which visualization best practices yield improvements. 2. Background a. Climate prediction center outlooks While the U.S. federal government has been producing extended-range and long-lead temperature and precipitation forecasts since the 1940s, the current suite of products generated by

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Jeannette Sutton and Chelsea Woods

the essential steps to be taken to protect life and property ( Lindell and Perry 1992 ) in an instructive manner, explaining how to perform life-saving activities ( Sellnow et al. 2002 ). Public warning messages must also identify the location of the impending hazard and the areas at risk. This includes geographical and physical boundaries for the at-risk area so individuals within that area can evacuate or prepare to do so ( Greene et al. 1981 ) and those who are safely outside of the hazard

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