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Khalia J. Hill, Agus Santoso, and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction Rainfall over Tasmania, an island off the southeast coast of Australia, is potentially influenced by several large-scale climate modes operating over the surrounding oceans. The island lies between 144.5° and 148°E and stretches from 40° to 43.5°S, with the prevailing westerly winds responsible for the majority of rainfall. Tasmania also has a distinct gradient in orography, with high mountains in the west extending into the central regions, while the east remains relatively

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Steven A. Mauget and Eugene C. Cordero

1. Introduction In the coming decades, intradecadal to multidecadal (IMD) temperature regimes associated with low-frequency internal climate mechanisms may rival or even dominate greenhouse warming effects at regional scales ( Hawkins and Sutton 2009 ; Hurrell et al. 2010 ). Apart from their effects on greenhouse warming, these persistent climate modes may also provide, in principle, the basis for decadal climate prediction efforts such as the Met Office’s decadal prediction system ( Smith et

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Cara Melissa Albright and Harrison Schramm

are characterized as Cfa within the Köppen–Geiger climate-classification system, as determined by Kottek et al. (2006) using data from the second half of the twentieth century. The Cfa designation is indicative of eastern coastal locations with a temperate climate, no dry season, and hot summers ( Kottek et al. 2006 ). Philadelphia is a case study because of its lengthy historical record and high percentage of data present and also because it is currently implementing new technologies to

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Christopher Daly, Mark P. Widrlechner, Michael D. Halbleib, Joseph I. Smith, and Wayne P. Gibson

Hardiness Zone Map for the United States . USDA Misc. Publ. 814, 1 p . USDA , 1965 : Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the United States (revised) . USDA Misc. Publ. 814 (revised), 1 p . Vogel , K. P. , M. R. Schmer , and R. B. Mitchell , 2005 : Plant adaptation regions: Ecological and climate classification of plant materials . Rangeland Ecol. Manage. , 58 , 315 – 319 . Widrlechner , M. P. , 1994 : Environmental analogs in the search for stress-tolerant landscape plants . J

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Nicholas J. Byrne, Theodore G. Shepherd, Tim Woollings, and R. Alan Plumb

1. Introduction The interval encompassing late spring and summer represents a time frame of uncommon interest for Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate variability. The stratosphere–troposphere coupling evident in the southern annular mode (SAM) pattern of variability maximizes during this period ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). There is a concomitant increase in SAM persistence time scales, which suggests potential for skillful seasonal forecasting ( Baldwin et al. 2003 ; Kidston et al. 2015 ). The

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Steven A. Mauget

result, the USHCN daily data are not used as records of unbiased temperature variation but are used to estimate the rank similarity between CDD S and GDD S values calculated from the same temperature records. 3. The ORR method Detecting variation in long-term climate records can be confounded by a time series analysis method’s basic assumptions. Regional climate variability can occur in intermittent regimes or irregular cycles, but indiscriminate linear trend analysis assumes somewhat linear

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David J. Lorenz, Jason A. Otkin, Mark Svoboda, Christopher R. Hain, Martha C. Anderson, and Yafang Zhong

. 2012 ; Yuan et al. 2013a , b ; Bell et al. 2013 ; Pan et al. 2013 ; Dutra et al. 2014 ; McEvoy et al. 2016 ) provide valuable information. For example, outputs from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble ( Kirtman et al. 2014 ) have been used to forecast future drought ( Yuan and Wood 2013 ; Mo and Lyon 2015 ; Thober et al. 2015 ). However, this guidance has typically been for seasonal time scales. To help address short-range forecasting needs, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a

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Toshiki Iwasaki, Takamichi Shoji, Yuki Kanno, Masahiro Sawada, Masashi Ujiie, and Koutarou Takaya

and Ho 2005 ; Park et al. 2011 ). In isobaric coordinates, however, the time-mean wind hardly indicates the cold airmass flux, because it includes warm winds. Therefore, previous studies treated the cold air outbreaks as anomalous events deviated from the normal climate. Direct estimates, however, have not been made of the stationary component of polar cold airmass flux yet. Isentropic coordinates are convenient to trace the airmass trajectory. Harada (1962) studied the rapid advancement of the

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Andrea Seim, Johannes A. Schultz, Christoph Beck, Achim Bräuning, Paul J. Krusic, Caroline Leland, Oyunsanaa Byambasuren, Eryuan Liang, Xiaochun Wang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, and Hans W. Linderholm

~4500 m MSL) and 2) the vertical extension of dominant atmospheric circulation patterns, like the Asian monsoons. The final classification for each geopotential height field was done using a cluster analysis based on the distributed k -means approach, since it best resolves surface climate variations ( Enke and Spekat 1997 ). We produced a classification scheme of 27 predefined weather types, which occur over the course of a year within the region of 25°–65°N, 45°–165°E. This domain covers all the

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Niklas Boers, Bodo Bookhagen, José Marengo, Norbert Marwan, Jin-Song von Storch, and Jürgen Kurths

). The far-reaching impacts of extreme rainfall events call for a better understanding of how their frequency, magnitude, and spatial covariability are represented by different datasets. Furthermore, in order to obtain a sound assessment of future extreme rainfall development, it is crucial to evaluate climate models with respect to their performance in reproducing observed spatiotemporal characteristics of extreme rainfall. The representation of extreme events in a dataset or model is usually only

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