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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Fredrik Boberg, Jens H. Christensen, and Peter Berg

better represents the 2002 Elbe River flood when using a method with reinitializations, compared to a standard continuous simulation. Until now, in the RCM community, the method with frequent reinitializations has been limited to short simulations and has not been employed in a multiyear framework to downscale a full reanalysis, which is specifically designed for the needs of impact studies. A regional reanalysis was requested in the European Union (EU) Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) project Water

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Adam A. Scaife, Chris K. Folland, Lisa V. Alexander, Anders Moberg, and Jeff R. Knight

1. Introduction In the last decade there has been much interest in assessing whether climatic extremes have been changing because changes in temperature and rainfall extremes, in particular, are expected to be an important result of greenhouse warming on multicontinental to global scales ( Karl et al. 1995 ; Frich et al. 2002 ; Kiktev et al. 2003 ; Groisman et al. 2005 ; Alexander et al. 2006 ) and for Europe (e.g., Klein Tank et al. 2002 ; Klein Tank and Können 2003 ; Moberg et al. 2006

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Jeffrey Shaman and Eli Tziperman

. (2003) found a similar relationship more broadly for southwestern Europe and North Africa. Both studies found that the strength and sign of this lead–lag relationship varied on decadal time scales. Others have found similar lead–lag associations ( Laita and Grimalt 1997 ), and decadal variability of the ENSO teleconnection with precipitation in this region has been noted for contemporaneous associations as well ( Mariotti et al. 2002 ; Park 2004 ). Studies have also documented associations between

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Artur Surowiecki and Mateusz Taszarek

common in Europe during summertime ( Morel and Senesi 2002a , b ), their morphological characteristics remain unknown because no quantitative and qualitative estimates with radar data had been performed. As opposed to satellite images, radar data allow for a more accurate detection of MCSs and their corresponding morphological features. Improvements in the quality and coverage of radar data along with prolonging measurement periods over the last year provide increasingly better possibilities for

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A. J. Bennett, C. Gaffard, J. Nash, G. Callaghan, and N. C. Atkinson

sensor sites over Europe receiving between 5 and 15 kHz, centered at 9.8 kHz ( Lagouvardos et al. 2009 ). ZEUS previously included seven additional sensors in Africa, but these operated independently from the European subnetwork to avoid system overload. ZEUS has also been used in combination with sensors in Brazil and Africa [Sferics Timing and Ranging Network (STARNET)]. Given that the ATD technique involves correlation of the whole waveform, the time differences retrieved will be sensitive to any

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Mark J Rodwell, Linus Magnusson, Peter Bauer, Peter Bechtold, Massimo Bonavita, Carla Cardinali, Michail Diamantakis, Paul Earnshaw, Antonio Garcia-Mendez, Lars Isaksen, Erland Källén, Daniel Klocke, Philippe Lopez, Tony McNally, Anders Persson, Fernando Prates, and Nils Wedi

A relationship between busted European forecasts, a Rockies trough, and storms over eastern North America suggests the importance of improving quality and use of observations, model depiction of convective systems, and representation of uncertainties. In common with other weather centers, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) produces a “single high-resolution forecast” and an “ensemble of lower-resolution forecasts.” The former represents, on average, the most accurate

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Werner Möser and Ehrhard Raschke

166JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 23Incident Solar Radiation over Europe Estimated from METEOSAT DataWERNER MOSER AND ENRUARD RASCHKEInst itus f-r Geophysik und Meteorologie, University of Cologne, Germany (F.R.)26 ApriL 1983 and 10 August 1983ABSTRACTDaily sums of the downward solar radiation, i.e., the global radiation, have been computed from imagingdata of reflected solar and emitted infrared radiation which were measured from the geostationary satellitesMETEOSAT I and H

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Holger Pohlmann, Frank Sienz, and Mojib Latif

2002 ), but the magnitude depends on the AOGCM considered. In most models the temperatures over northern Europe decrease by several degrees. Furhermore, a collapse of the Atlantic THC in response to global warming is discussed ( Broecker 1987 ; Manabe and Stouffer 1993 , 1994 ; Weaver and Hillaire-Marcel 2004 ). The abrupt climate change associated with the collapse of the Atlantic THC might even be irreversible ( Alley et al. 2003 ). More likely than a breakdown of the THC seems to be a

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N. Mazarakis, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, and A. A. Argiriou

and local mesoscale circulations. Moreover, Gungle and Krider (2006) examined nine relatively isolated warm-season thunderstorms in Florida and found that there exists a linear relationship between the precipitation amount and the number of CG flashes. The number of studies that focus on Europe, and especially on the Mediterranean Sea, is relatively limited. Soriano et al. (2001) recently studied the relationship between CG lightning and convective precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula for

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Blanca Ayarzagüena and Encarna Serrano

in the middle-tropospheric circulation in each spring month between years with a very early or very late breakup of the polar vortex. Lastly, section 4 presents the main conclusions. 2. Data and method a. Database The atmospheric data used in this study have been taken from the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ), with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° latitude by 2.5° longitude covering the Northern Hemisphere for the period of 1958

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