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Sami Bensassi, Preeya Mohan, and Eric Strobl

the Caribbean plantations after the passage of these storms. 2 Sugarcane is traditionally planted from November to May. The Atlantic hurricane season occurs from June to November but can begin as early as May, and hurricanes may even occur outside of these months. The force of winds and flooding from these storms can annihilate the harvest of the year and seriously endanger the following year’s harvest. 3 Additionally, the strong winds and rainfall destroyed equipment, storage facilities, and

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Claire Cambardella, Brian D. Fath, Andrea Werdenigg, Christian Gulas, and Harald Katzmair

only measure hierarchist, individualist, and egalitarian worldviews even though the construct of CT defines each cultural solidarity in part by its relation to the others ( Swedlow et al. 2016 ; Verweij et al. 2011 ). The difficult task of including fatalist worldviews in surveys poses a problem for the operationalization of CT ( Johnson et al. 2020 ). If a person who has a fatalist worldview completes a survey without the option of identifying with the fatalist way of life, then this will force

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Jianxin Cui, Hong Chang, Kaiyue Cheng, and George S. Burr

construct a wall between the Chinese settlements and the Ordos to protect the local people. The minister of war was hesitant to comply but wanted to drive the Mongols out of the area. One argument opposing the construction of the wall was the high percentage of sand in the local soil: even if a wall was built, it would eventually collapse ( Liu 1962 ). The Beijing administration sent General Wang Yue to force the Mongols out of the Ordos. However, this great enterprise was not completed because of the

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Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Baruch Fischhoff, and Benjamin Strauss

= no. [Research suggests that the more concrete and specific a plan of action, the greater likelihood of follow-through. Therefore, we chose a short window of time, forcing respondents to consider the likelihood of doing something in the near term (see, e.g., Bargh 2007 )]. 2) Risk estimates Participants were asked to answer the question “What do you think the chances are of major flooding happening here in the next 30 years?” on a scale from 0% to 100%. 3) Risk tolerance Participants first

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Joshua D. Eachus and Barry D. Keim

the receiver. This should be an emphasis of major meteorological and disaster organizations such as the National Weather Service, the American Meteorological Society and the National Weather Association as the consequences are life and death. REFERENCES AMS , 2017 : Best practices for publicly sharing weather information via social media. American Meteorological Society, accessed 15 September 2017,

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Jeannette Sutton, Sarah C. Vos, Michele M. Wood, and Monique Turner

). Although WEA- and Twitter-based warning messages have the potential to reach people quickly, the character constraints of these systems (90 and 140, respectively) force officials to write short messages. Logistically, these messages may not contain enough characters to allow emergency managers to include the five types of content identified by the warning response model ( Mileti 1999 ). Existing research on short messages has found that relative to longer 1380-character messages, shorter messages

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Shadya Sanders, Terri Adams, and Everette Joseph

perceptions given repeated warnings ( Dow and Cutter 1998 ). Further, false alarm ratios can vary by region and season, and Lim et al. (2019) find that the perception of false alarms from residents of the southeastern United States does not match actual false alarm rates nor do they help to predict protective actions. Although threat perceptions have been linked to response to tornado alerts, some argue that the force of a storm can be so strong that the best defense is getting people out of the storm

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Scott E. Kalafatis, Jasmine Neosh, Julie C. Libarkin, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Chris Caldwell

present way of being and seeing the world coming into contact with new second-order experiences that generate doubt and discomfort about existing understanding ( Malinen 2000 , 61–63). Individuals seek continuity between their past and present experiences, so disruptions force a personal decision to preserve continuity through either resisting this new information or learning through using it to update prior understanding ( Malinen 2000 , 64–66). Reflection plays a key role in these models ( Fenwick

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Katerina Papagiannaki, Vassiliki Kotroni, Kostas Lagouvardos, Isabelle Ruin, and Antonis Bezes

. Lagouvardos , V. Kotroni , C. Claud , J. Delanoë , C. Flamant , E. Madonna , and H. Wernli , 2016 : Processes leading to heavy precipitation associated with two Mediterranean cyclones observed during the HyMeX SOP1 . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 142 , 275 – 286 , doi: 10.1002/qj.2618 . 10.1002/qj.2618 Hellenic Statistical Authority , 2015 : Labour force (quarterly), 4th quarter. Accessed 7 December 2016. [Available online at

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Joy E. Losee, Karen Z. Naufel, Lawrence Locker Jr., and Gregory D. Webster

real hurricanes revealed that although participants overestimated the likelihood of hurricane-force wind, they underestimated the amount of damage those winds would cause ( Meyer et al. 2014 ). Thus, questions remain about the correspondence between anchoring to severity and actual behaviors such as protective action. For that reason, future research should determine both the extent of this anchoring-to-severity effect, its effect in a wider population, and its causal role in people’s decisions to

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