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S. F. Milton and C. A. Wilson

SEPTEMBER 1996 MILTON AND WILSON 2023The Impact of Parameterized Subgrid-Scale Orographic Forcing on Systematic Errors in a Global NW? Model S. F. MILTON AND C. A. WILSONU.K. Meteorological Office, Bracknell, United Kingdom(Manuscript received I 1 October 1995, in final form 6 February 1996)ABSTRACT The global momentum budget for December 1993, diagnosed from a series of

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V. A. Mousseau, D. A. Knoll, and J. M. Reisner

1. Introduction An implicit nonlinearly consistent (INC) solution method is presented for the solution of the shallow-water equations including the Coriolis force in two-dimensions. We demonstrate that a second-order-in-time INC method can provide accurate solutions to problems even when the advective Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) number is greater than one. To explain this result we performed an approximate modified equation analysis (AMEA) to quantify the differences between an INC solution

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J. Egger

AemL1976 J. EGGER 351The Linear Response of a Hemispheric Two-Level Primitive Equation Model to Forcing by Topography J.Institut f~r Theoretische Meteorologie, der Universit~t Miinchen, 8 M~nchcn, FRG (Manuscript received 14 August 1975, in revised form 23 October 1975) ABSTRACT A hemispheric solution is obtained for the

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east Gulf coast, ;ii::::: on the morning of the 24th. After passing inland the winds I VIII .... diminished in force and i t mored off the North C;wolina coast as a disturbance of slight energy, although the report,s from the Atlantic and from Sydney, C. B. I., of the 26th indicate,these low areas:. -.No.... . -. .iI Lowest prossure. L---.-M.- .- b d ! Stntion. J*I. d-d-.-.- 2 ,E : ...--. . .- - ... . -.Inches.29.3'3NORTH ATLAKTIC STORMS FOR MARCH, 1889 (pressure in inches and millimetres; mind-force

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., lath, wind shifted to north- westl increasing in force to a gale.(f?rty-eight miles) beiween 8 and 4 a. m.,continuing high all day and diminishing in force during the afternoon. Thechange in wind shortly crfter midnight corresponded with lowest barometer, 28.86 actual. The rise in the barometer after 1 a. m. was as rapid as hadbeen its fall during the preceding day. The chan e in barometric pressureis re resented by nn invertcd cone, with depth of1.6 inches. Rain ended shorlfy after midnight

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N. 26O, W. 76O, by the 21st. On this~ ~~~~date south to west gales of hurricane force prevailed over the eastern portion of the Bahama lalands; in the vicinity of the thirtieth parallel fresh easterly gales were reported, while off the Florida coast strong northerly gales prevailed. During the 22d and 23d the storm recurved slowly northward, with a marked decrease in energy; .by the 24th i t had advanced to N. 32O, W. 76O, and during $6 northeast passage along tliecourse of the Gulf Stream dur1n

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...............................0 NORTH ATLANTIC STORMS FOR MAY, 1890 (pressure in inches and millimetres; wind-force by Beaufort scale).#The paths of the depressions that appeared over the northAtlantic Ocean during May, 1890, are shown on chart i ,These paths have been determined from iuternatiounl observa.tione by captains of ocean steamships and sailing vessels re. Hived through the co-operation of the Hydrographic Officc?,'Nsvy Department, and the "New York Herald WeatherService. "Nine depressions hare boen traced for Ma

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Office, Navy Department, and the "New York Herald Weather Service." Nine depressions have been traced for May, 1889, the average number traced for the corresponding month of' the last four years being ten. Generally fair weather prevailed and stormsof unusual strength were not reported save on out? date, the21st, when gales of hurricane force were encountered off the middle Atlantic coast of the United States. Over the westernpart of the ocean a noteworthy feature was the advance nortb- ward from

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north of Wash-ngton Territory on the 27th. Its path waa above the bound- try, and it waa lnst noted on the 28th in Manitoba. XVI1.-This storm was flrst seen in Montana on the 28th.[ts path waa due east, and on the last day of the month i t had :cached the Province of Quebec. XVII1.-This storm originated in Idaho on the 31st, andwas traced to Wyoming on the afternoon of the same day.NORTH ATLANTIO STORMS FOR OCTOBER, 1888 (pressure in inches and millimetres ; wind-force by Beaufort scale).The paths

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Shawn R. Smith, Phaedra M. Green, Alan P. Leonardi, and James J. O’Brien

Reanalysis data ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Identification of winter-mean dynamic features and circulations during ENSO winters is accomplished using 5° × 5° monthly mean wind and pressure analyses from NCAR. According to W. Spangler (1997, personal communication), these analyses were created from operational grids provided by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, NCEP, and others. Prior to 1960, the monthly analyses were created from digitized versions of subjectively analyzed maps. Objective techniques were

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