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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

and Morgan 2006 ). When the Bonin high retreats eastward from its climatological location, TCs tend to undergo recurvature and move northeastward ( Harr and Elsberry 1995 ; Nakazawa and Rajendran 2007 ). In other cases, the TC moves mostly toward the Chinese mainland directly. Hence, TC tracks in the western North Pacific are roughly classified into recurved and nonrecurved paths (e.g., Hirata and Kawamura 2014 ): nonrecurved TCs pose a risk to the Chinese coast, while recurved TCs often hit the

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Robert E. Todd, W. Brechner Owens, and Daniel L. Rudnick

available at http://spray.ucsd.edu . Fig . 1. Maps of Spray glider observations across the (a) Loop Current and (b) Gulf Stream. Individual dots indicate profile locations, with colors indicating date of sampling. Mean SSH during 2004–12 from the AVISO mapped absolute dynamic topography product is contoured every 10 cm and shows the mean location of the western boundary current as large gradients; the 40-cm contour, which tracks the path of the Loop Current and Gulf Stream well, is shown thick

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Samuel M. Kelly, Nicole L. Jones, Gregory N. Ivey, and Ryan J. Lowe

location and intensity of an internal-tide generation region, in turn altering both the amplitude and phase (through travel time) of the internal tide observed at a fixed remote location. A change in stratification can also affect the propagation of the internal tide (by changing the group speed), which can shift internal-tide interference patterns ( Rainville et al. 2010 ) and alter both the amplitude and phase of the internal tide observed at a fixed remote location. c. Setting and motivation Here

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

study is inspired by Herrmann et al.’s (2005) attribution of the trend in residual NDVI—that is, the regreening trend that remains once the linear influence of precipitation is accounted for—to human intervention. Herrmann et al. (2005) point to this qualitative correspondence in a few locations, which are well known from case study literature to be the loci of successful interventions to combat land degradation. Seeking a middle ground between the three lines of research described above, which

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Laurie Agel, Mathew Barlow, Jian-Hua Qian, Frank Colby, Ellen Douglas, and Timothy Eichler

for inland stations. Fig . 2. (a) The geographical separation of Northeast USHCN coastal and inland stations, and the characteristic seasonal cycle of PI for each station. The station seasonal cycles for (b) PD, (c) PI, and (d) PT are also shown. The thick black line shows the mean of all stations, and the colored lines show the individual contribution of each station. Based on the shapes of the seasonal cycles and geographic location, the stations are separated into 16 coastal (blue lines) and 19

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Malte F. Stuecker, Fei-Fei Jin, Axel Timmermann, and Shayne McGregor

; McGregor et al. 2012 ; Stein et al. 2014 ; Widlansky et al. 2014 ; Stuecker et al. 2015a , b ; Zhang et al. 2015a , b ; Ren et al. 2016 ). Whereas the atmospheric response in the NWP region for both the composite El Niño event ( Fig. 1 ) as well as for La Niña events ( Stuecker et al. 2015b ) clearly exhibits the underlying C-mode dynamics, other factors also impact the observed circulation in this region. For instance, the zonal location of the ENSO SSTA forcing plays an important role in

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Ali Asaadi, Gilbert Brunet, and M. K. Yau

average basic state. At days +4 to +5, the jet maximum weakens, a feature consistent with the onset of nonlinear processes to be discussed in Part II . It should be pointed out that the composite may not show the characteristics of a particular case, because of the slight latitudinal and/or longitudinal shift in the fields, differences in geographical location of the disturbances, and variations in phase speeds of the systems within the different lags (days 0 to +5). DMW09 reported that the

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Ute Hausmann, Arnaud Czaja, and John Marshall

not met for i = 1, α is not estimated at that location). Section 4 also uses (2) to estimate feedbacks seasonally. In this case, n is set to 1 and only certain months of the year are included in time t in (2) . For example, α in December–February (DJF), which we denote α DJF, is obtained taking t only in November–February (NDJF), that is from NDJF T ′ and lag i = 1 [i.e., December–March (DJFM)] Q ′ time series. (Note that throughout this paper uppercase letter combinations

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Andrew F. Thompson, Andrew L. Stewart, and Tobias Bischoff

ocean is fixed. The model solves for the depth of each layer interface in the basin region z n , with 0 < z n < − H . The model also solves for the meridional position of the interface outcrop location in the ACC, y n , with − ℓ < y n < 0. In this section, we consider a simplified system that captures the key aspects of a three-dimensional overturning. Thus, we impose uniform isopycnal slopes s in the ACC, which are determined from s n = z n / y n ; in section 5 , we examine more

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Louis-Philippe Nadeau and Raffaele Ferrari

transport. Fig . 14. Sketch of the barotropic streamfunction for the hypothesis of NS09 and the new hypothesis. In the hypothesis of NS09 , the total transport is decomposed in a basin and a channel contribution, defined by the geographic division between the Drake Passage latitudes and the basin region to the north. In the revised hypothesis, all the circumpolar transport is expressed in the circumpolar mode. The gyre mode is intrinsically linked with the bottom form stress exerted by the ridge and

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