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A. Cenedese and P. Monti

Introduction Urban heat islands (hereinafter UHIs) are defined as the warmth produced by cities [see Oke (1995) and Fernando et al. (2001) for comprehensive reviews]. The difference in terrain coverage of urban and rural areas is mainly responsible for nighttime and daytime urban–rural temperature differences that can reach, in the case of large cities, 10°C or more. During the day, concrete and asphalt store larger amounts of incoming solar radiation than those typically retained by grassy

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Jong-Jin Baik

MARCH 1992 BAlK 291Response of a Stably Stratified Atmosphere to Low-Level Heatingw An Application to the Heat Island Problem JONG-JIN BAlKUniversities Space Research Association, Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland(Manuscript received 13 March 1991, in final form 31 July 1991

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Winston T. L. Chow, Dean Brennan, and Anthony J. Brazel

The prodigious volume of applied and interdisciplinary heat island research in Phoenix, Arizona, was motivated by several factors intrinsic to the city and has contributed to formation of municipal policies geared toward sustainable urban climates. The desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, is the focal point of the expansive Phoenix Metropolitan Area (PMA) (~37,000 km 2 ) ( Fig. 1 ). Since 1950, the PMA has experienced extensive land use and land cover (LULC) alterations, changing from a

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Christopher P. Loughner, Dale J. Allen, Da-Lin Zhang, Kenneth E. Pickering, Russell R. Dickerson, and Laura Landry

1. Introduction Urbanization can alter local climate and form an urban heat island (UHI; Landsberg 1981 ). Altering land use by creating impervious urban surfaces causes increased runoff, decreased evapotranspiration, increased solar radiation absorption, additional release of anthropogenic heat, and changes in surface friction, which results in changes in near-surface air temperature, humidity, wind speeds, low-level convergence/divergence, convection, and precipitation (e.g., Oke and Cleugh

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Jeff Chieppa, Austin Bush, and Chandana Mitra

1. Introduction Urban heat island (UHI) refers to the enhanced atmospheric warmth of a city relative to its countryside: the urban–rural difference in temperature ( Balchin and Pye 1947 ; Stewart and Oke 2012 ; Ng 2015 ). Land-use changes are one of the driving factors creating UHIs in urban areas. More specifically, converting changing land from vegetation to urban structures (buildings and roads) alters the natural surface energy and radiation balances ( Oke 1982 ; Lowry and Lowry 2001

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Fred M. Vukovich

JA~uxRY1975 FRED M. VUKOVICH 27A Study of the Effect of Wind Shear on a Heat Island Circulation Characteristic of an Urban Complex F~m) M. VvKovtct Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27709(Manuscript received 25 April 1974, in revised form 13 September 1974) ABSTRACT Simple linear models were used to study the

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Jason M. Keeler and David A. R. Kristovich

. Emissions from Chicago and northern Indiana can be advected over Lake Michigan, leading to poor air quality when brought inland by lake-breeze circulations ( Lyons and Cole 1976 ; Keen and Lyons 1978 ). In recent decades, there have been several investigations of interactions between sea or lake breezes and urban heat islands (UHIs), primarily using numerical modeling techniques. Some of these studies have inferred the effect of urban areas on the sea-breeze circulation by changing the surface

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Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

airborne measurements of wind speed and lapse rate at theedge of the city, upwind. Regression analysis showed that an empirical model based on the ratio oflapse rate to wind speed was not as effective in estimating urban heat island intensity in Calgary as amodel based only on lapse rate but was superior to one based on wind speed.1. Introduction The surficial urban heat island has been a subjectof many studies over the years. A number of thesestudies have included numerical models designed

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Jan Hafner and Stanley Q. Kidder

Introduction Howard (1833a–c) was the first to document the temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. This urban–rural temperature contrast was termed the “urban heat island” by Manley (1958) and since then the term has been widely used in the literature. The urban heat island (UHI), however, is more than a curiosity. According to Changnon (1992) , “As of 1991, more than half of all North Americans live and work in anthropogenically generated urban climates

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Brian V. Smoliak, Peter K. Snyder, Tracy E. Twine, Phillip M. Mykleby, and William F. Hertel

1. Introduction The systematic manipulation and replacement of natural environments with built environments in and around cities affect surface climate such that urban areas are warmer than their rural environs. This phenomenon, known as the urban heat island (UHI), appears at the surface and throughout the lower atmosphere, from the canopy layer to the boundary layer ( Rao 1972 ; Oke 1976 ). Evidence suggesting the existence of UHIs in surface air temperature (SAT) was first documented for

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