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Hiroyuki Kusaka, Keiko Nawata, Asuka Suzuki-Parker, Yuya Takane, and Nana Furuhashi

1. Introduction Urbanization alters the amount, intensities, and spatial patterns of precipitation in and around urban areas in a large plain. An extensive historical field campaign project, the Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX), showed that the urban heat island (UHI) increased the frequency and the amount of summertime precipitation in and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri ( Huff and Changnon 1972 ; Changnon 1981 ). Later observational studies supported the METROMEX results

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Neda Yaghoobian, Jan Kleissl, and E. Scott Krayenhoff

1. Introduction The thermal environment of a city has a multifaceted effect on the health of its dwellers and ecological and economic consequences at several scales. Thermal comfort, heat wave mortality, ozone formation, and building energy consumption and resulting carbon dioxide emissions are all impacted to varying degrees by the canopy layer thermal environment and its distinct character relative to rural areas, a difference that is often loosely referred to as the urban heat island. In

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Yukitaka Ohashi, Yukihiro Kikegawa, Tomohiko Ihara, and Nanami Sugiyama

distribution of heat hazard and HDR. In the future, outdoor air temperatures and the actual heat stress will increase because of climate change and urban heat island intensification (e.g., Delworth et al. 1999 ; Diffenbaugh et al. 2007 ; Kusaka et al. 2012 ). Moreover, because the human body tends to become less efficient at thermoregulation with age, more elderly people have become susceptible to the influence of hot summer environments (e.g., Kenney and Munce 2003 ); the number of elderly people

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Tomohiko Inamura, Takeki Izumi, and Hiroshi Matsuyama

cities ( Changnon et al. 1981 ). Results from METROMEX also revealed that rainfall increased over cities and in their leeward areas in summer because of urban effects. Many recent observational studies have confirmed this result. For example, based on the Atlanta Land-Use Analysis: Temperature and Air-Quality Project (Project ATLANTA), an observational study conducted in Atlanta, Georgia, Bornstein and Lin (2000) found that an urban heat island induced a convergence zone that initiated storms

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Barbara Früh, Paul Becker, Thomas Deutschländer, Johann-Dirk Hessel, Meinolf Kossmann, Ingrid Mieskes, Joachim Namyslo, Marita Roos, Uwe Sievers, Thomas Steigerwald, Heidelore Turau, and Uwe Wienert

increase in mortality ( Souch and Grimmond 2004 ). The additional heat load associated with global warming will especially affect cities since it adds to the well-known urban heat island (UHI) effect. The higher temperatures in cities are caused by the high density of buildings, the nonpermeability of the ground surface, and the surplus of energy due to anthropogenic activities. During daytime, land-use and surface characteristics have a greater influence on the UHI intensity than does anthropogenic

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Jennifer K. Vanos, Jon S. Warland, Terry J. Gillespie, Graham A. Slater, Robert D. Brown, and Natasha A. Kenny

as climate change advances ( Gosling et al. 2007 ; O’Neill and Ebi 2009 ). Heat is suggested to remain the most important extreme-weather-related killer in the United States ( Sheridan et al. 2009 ). During intense heat waves, individuals may not be able to escape the heat, with urban heat islands (UHI) diminishing nighttime cooling and thus heat relief. Particular importance should be placed on protecting vulnerable individuals—the elderly (>65 yr; Luber and McGeehin 2008 ), young, sick

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Xiangyu Ao, Liang Wang, Xing Zhi, Wen Gu, Hequn Yang, and Dan Li

is usually characterized by light wind and cloudless sky. In a warming climate, the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial extent of HWs are expected to be exacerbated ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Lau and Nath 2012 ; Loikith and Broccoli 2012 ; Lau and Ploshay 2013 ; Peterson et al. 2013 ; Russo et al. 2015 ; Mora et al. 2017 ). Urban residents are arguably more vulnerable to HWs than those in suburban or rural areas because of the urban heat island (UHI) effect; that

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Stephanie J. Jacobs, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Nigel J. Tapper, and Dan Li

. 2013 ). There is a greater risk of heat stress in cities than in adjacent rural areas because of the urban heat island effect (UHI; Fischer et al. 2012 ). Cities can be hotter than their surrounding areas, especially at night, for a range of reasons, including building materials with large heat capacity; building geometry that facilitates radiative trapping; multiple anthropogenic heat sources such as people, cars, and air conditioners; and a lack of vegetation ( Oke 1987 ). In Melbourne

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Evan M. Oswald, Richard B. Rood, Kai Zhang, Carina J. Gronlund, Marie S. O’Neill, Jalonne L. White-Newsome, Shannon J. Brines, and Daniel G. Brown

cover ( Observing Systems Branch 1989 ; Peterson 2003 ). Developed land cover can alter the air temperatures and cause the urban heat island (UHI) effect, defined as the elevated temperatures within urban environments relative to the surrounding rural areas ( Oke 1982 ). The UHI effect is well understood ( Oke 1982 ; Bonan 2008 ; Grimmond et al. 2010 ). In general, studies focusing on either the UHI effect or spatial variability of air temperatures use either a pair ( Ackerman 1985 ; Magee et al

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Steven M. Crum and G. Darrel Jenerette

.1093/aje/kws259 Buyantuyev , A. , and J. G. Wu , 2010 : Urban heat island and landscape heterogeneity: Linking spatiotemporal variations in surface temperature to land-cover and socioeconomic patterns . Landscape Ecol. , 25 , 17 – 33 , doi: 10.1007/s10980-009-9402-4 . 10.1007/s10980-009-9402-4 Chakraborty , S. D. , Y. Kant , and D. Mitra , 2015 : Assessment of land surface temperature and heat fluxes over Delhi using remote sensing data . J. Environ. Manage. , 148 , 143 – 152 , doi

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