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Mathias D. Müller and Dieter Scherer

disregarding neighborhood effects like sky view restrictions and shadowing. The NMM, used in this study, computes shortwave radiation absorption, reflection, and scattering in the model atmosphere based on Lacis and Hansen (1974) . Absorption for water vapor, O 3 , and CO 2 are computed separately and over single bands in the UV/visible and near-infrared (NIR) portions of the solar spectrum, each representing 50% of incoming solar energy. The basic surface albedo taken from climatology is modified to

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includingsurface friction (NRF), and including radiat,ion but ex-cluding friction (RKF). Large-scale release of latent heatis incorporated in all three runs.TABLE l.-AIean heating during January and July for t.he regionfrom 30-;O"N and from 1010-200 ntb. Units in 108 callday.(Adapted from Davis 1963)Month radiation Infrared radiation Solar Latent heat Boundary rckase fluxJanuary -390 55 190 74July -4w 240 210 869

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F. Chevallier and J-J. Morcrette

, respectively. For these quantities, all stations have adopted the standards for measurements set by BSRN ( WCRP 1991 ; Heimo et al. 1993 ). These are 15 W m −2 for broadband solar measurements and 10 W m −2 for thermal infrared instruments. To achieve these goals, both the broadband solar and infrared instruments are calibrated against standards traceable to the World Radiation Centre in Davos, Switzerland. The absolute calibration is such that 90% of the measurements are within 11 W m −2 , and 99% are

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William L. Smith Jr., Paul F. Hein, and Stephen K. Cox

transfer modela. Model discussion In order to assess the impact of the cloud layers oninfrared radiation, the broadband (4-50 urn) irradiancedata were analyzed utilizing a broadband infrared radiative transfer model similar to that described by Coxand Griffith (1979). For clear sky, this model is capableof reproducing broadband divergence values whichagree with observations (Albrecht et al. 1974). Theintegral emittance values of the three radiatively important gases, H20, CO2, and 03 were calculated

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undoubtedly on the de ree of suns activit ,needed. I may be allowed to point out another fact: If A. Ang- strzjms new actinometer for sky radiation lo proves useful and magnesium oxide reallv very well absorbs the wave eater than 4p, then the necessary means to.leyths she ter t %? e Stevenson shelter against radiation influence would be found. Long series of observations not yet pub- lished have proved how much the shelter needs this pro- tection in a genuine radiation climate like that of Davos, where

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the especially numerous known and unknown sources of error afflicting solar radiation measurements, particular emphasis on concurrent observations offers one of the most important possibilities.-Edmund Schulman. W. W. SPANOENBERG. StrahlungsKlimatologische Betrachtungen. Aus d. Archiv d. deutschen Seewarte, 68, n. 8, 32 pp., 1938. The author compares the mean monthly values of transmission, turbidity, and maximum intensity of both the total and the red-infrared radiation at eight stations of

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John T. Ball, Marshall A. Atwater, and Stephen J. Thoren

APRIL 1981 BALL, ATWATER AND THOREN 889Sensitivity of Computed Incoming Solar Radiation at the Surface to Cloud Analyses JOHN T. BALL, MARSHALL A. ATWATER~ AND STEPHEN J. THOREN The Center for the Environment and Man, Hartford, CT 06120 (Manuscript received 27 June 1980, in final form 9 October 1980) ABSTRACT A radiation model was used to simulate

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James J. Gurka and Vincent J. Oliver

excellent exampleof the effect of cirrus on fog dissipation. Cirrus overlying an area of fog and stratus during the sunlighthours should retard the dissipation of the low cloudsby reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching theground. On 6 July 1974, a long band of cirrus archedfrom SW to NE across Pennsylvania and remainedover an area of fog and stratus. By 1600 GMT, all thefog had dissipated except that portion directly beneaththe narrow cirrus band. On the 1330 GMT SMS picture (Fig. 1), the

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cut-off with t,crnper:t-ture (Hickey et al., [4]) measurement#s intlicnt8c thrtt, thenear-infrared (0.694.0 p) portion of Qo.a ttverrLge*Cd 0.704ly. */min. During the same period Q0.5 ohtrtinetl I)y int,er-polat'ion between the ralues before nnd dtcr t'he period(fig. 6) was near 1.290 ly./min. This suggest,s t'llrlt, tthout,54.5 percent of Q0.5 was at wtxvelengt8hs 20.691 p. Out,-side the atmosphere approsimtttmely 52.5 percent of tlwsolar radiation is at wavelengths 20.691 p (list [SI

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radiation and meteorologicalobservations to derive an equation relating the meteor-ological parameter to the radiation observations. In thepresent study, we a,pply a stepwise multiple regressionscheme, rather than straight multiple regression, to asample of Nimbus 3 infrared interferometer spectrometer(IRIS) observations. The stepwise technique is used todevelop linear relationships between the meteorologicalparameters (predictands) and the satellite radiation obser-vations (predictors). The advantage

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