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Georgi Sutyrin, Alexander Stegner, Isabelle Taupier-Letage, and Samuel Teinturier

the Libyan shelf The EGYPT-1 campaign took place in April 2006. The infrared satellite imagery was analyzed in near–real time to retrieve information on the mesoscale structures. It enabled sampling along the Libyan shelf of a mesoscale anticyclone [Libyan eddy (LE)] with a CTD transect ( Fig. 1d ) and surface drifters (information available online at http://poseidon.ogs.trieste.it/sire/drifter/egitto_0406_sem.html ). Among them, three drifters remain trapped in the core of the LE anticyclone for

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C. R. McClain, N. E. Huang, and P. E. La Violette

currents are, to the northand northwest, the cold waters of the Labrador andSlope Water currents. The confluence of these currents over the Newfoundland Ridge creates largemasses of cold water which are constantly being extruded southeast into the warmer waters (LaVioletteet al., 1980; LaViolette, 1981). The surface manifestations of these extrusions appear in the infrared imagery as sharp, well-defined frontal features that aredirectly related to subsurface structure that extendsas deep as 1500 m

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J. C. K. Huang

upward fluxes of infrared radiation, sensible heat and latent heat, respectively, asdefined in Table 1. Table 1 also defines all othernotations used in the following formulas. The solar radiation flux can be calculated from asimplified formula with empirical constants obtainedfrom atmospheric climatology (Johnson et al., 1958;London, 1957; Vonder Haar and Hanson, 1969) as Q, = 0.95Q0(0.74 - 0.6No). (20)The net upward infrared heat flux is calculated fromQB = 0

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Gerald A. Meehl

: [II-II]+[(Q+q)(I-a)I=H+LE+G, (1)where I~ is incoming infrared radiation,/1 is upwardinfrared from the surface, Q + q is the sum of directand diffuse solar radiation, a is albedo, H is sensibleheat, LE is latent heat, and G is heat flow throughthe surface. The sea surface temperature is a function of thethree terms on the right side of Eq. (1), as well asbeing related to the upward infrared flux as follows: IT = eat4, (2)where ~ is

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David Pollard, Mary L. Batten, and Young-June Han

downward net flux of infrared radiation at thesurface (I) is calculated as in Parkinson and Washington (1979):I = ~gI0(1 + 0.275/-) - egaTg4.Here I0 represents the downward flux under cloudlessskies, given as a function only of Ta [Parkinson andWashington, 1979, Eq. (5); Idso and Jackson, 1969];eg is the ground's longwave emissivity, taken as 0.99for a frozen snow surface and 0.97 otherwise; a= 1.355 x 10-12 cal cm-2 s-~ (-K)-4 is the Stefan766 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL

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Wei Mei and Claudia Pasquero

daytime heating parameter and t h is the length of daytime heating. The water type, which determines the penetrating depth of shortwave radiation, is chosen as IA ( Jerlov 1976 ). The heat loss from the ocean surface Q loss (i.e., the sum of longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat flux) is combined in a temperature restoring term, 3 where λ is the Newtonian cooling rate, T 0 is a reference temperature, and T s is the surface temperature. When the ocean temperature is in equilibrium

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William K. Dewar and Christine Gailliard

literature, see the recentarticle by Flierl (1987). There are, however, a few notable studies of lower-layer effects on isolated ring evolution. In an early study on nonlinear vortices,McWilliams and Flierl ( 1979, hereafter MF) employeda truncated expansion in vertical modes of the quasigeostrophic equations. They demonstrated the abilityof the nonlinearity in the momentum equations tosuppress planetary wave radiation, thereby enhancingeddy coherence. In their two-mode (barotropic andfirst baroclinic

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J. Z. Holland

-depth (STD) soundings at the fixed-shipstations together with solar and net radiation measurements on the ship booms to evaluate the net radiativeinput and rate of change of heat storage in the uppermixed layer of the ocean. The data provide an estimateof the large-scale horizontal temperature gradient, butno direct measurements of current velocity are availableto permit computation of the horizontal advection.Indirect evidence from ship drift velocities, currentmeasurements made by Florida State

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Patrick Marchesiello and Jason H. Middleton

initial temperature field is constructed from the sea surface temperature and the temperature at a depth of 250 m (T250), which are obtained from the RAN weekly temperature charts. These data come from a wide range of sources including infrared satellite imagery, satellite tracked buoys, expendable bathythermographs (XBT, AXBT), and general shipping SST observations. They are plotted onto the weekly analysis charts using an optimal interpolation scheme. The model domain is slightly larger than the

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John R. Apel, James R. Holbrook, Antony K. Liu, and John J. Tsai

and servedto identify their location, extent, and velocity to satelliteremote sensors. 3) The internal waves were thought to be highlynonlinear, perhaps even solitary waves, and upon tidereversal, propagated as a radiation field away from thesource region at speeds considerably in excess of thesmall-amplitude, linear speed; during their propagation, the bathymetry of the Sulu Sea played an important role in establishing refraction and diffraction effects. 4) The waves were probably generated

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