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N. Rimbu, G. Lohmann, T. Felis, and J. Pätzold

collected from a massive coral colony directly exposed to open-sea conditions. This provides a good representation of large-scale oceanic and atmospheric conditions at a coastal site. Oxygen isotope analysis of this coral core was performed at the stable isotope laboratory of the Department of Geosciences at Bremen University, Germany ( Felis et al. 2000 ). The January–February (JF) values of each year are taken from this record in order to generate the wintertime series, shown in Fig. 1a . Although

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Gidon Eshel, Daniel P. Schrag, and Brian F. Farrell

effect of net freshwater loss north of the CZ, compounded with higher evaporation in the north and the northwesterly winds off the Sinai Peninsula, act together to depress the sea level in the northern RS. The resultant northward sea level slope is the primary circulation driver north of the CZ ( Cember 1988 ; Eshel and Naik 1997 ). For the purpose of the following analysis, the northern RS flow can be idealized as a simple thermohaline overturning cell. At and near the surface, a northward flow

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Gerard H. Roe and Eric J. Steig

occurred during transitions between glacial and interglacial climates (e.g., between 20 and 10 ka); we do not include such transitions in our analysis. Isotope data from the GISP2 and GRIP cores, drilled only 30 km apart, may for the most part be considered identical between 0 and 100 ka ( Grootes et al. 1993 ). Hinnov et al. (2002) have noted some important differences in the spectral properties of the time series that may result in part from the procedures used in relating time scales for GRIP

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Wynn L. Eberhard

approach by which CO2 lidaxs can detect cloud phase.The analysis shows that the ratio of backscatter at twoappropriate wavelengths of a CO2 lidar gives a clearsignature for differentiating between water and ice par-ticles. Several wavelength pairs, and the potentialsources of error for each, are evaluated to guide wavelength selection .for later implementation of themethod.2. Methoda. Wavelength-dependent re~active index The volumetric baekscatter cross section ~8 of a col~lection of particles

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Andreas Münchow, Thomas J. Weingartner, and Lee W. Cooper

density are negligible. Salinity is furthermore an excellent tracer of both ice melt and river waters, however, in order to distinguish between these two freshwater sources, we need another tracer such as stable oxygen isotope ratios ( Strain and Tan 1993 ). Stable oxygen isotope ratios of seawater (H 2 18 O/H 2 16 O) have been used as a conservative tracer of water masses since Epstein and Mayeda (1953) introduced the method to oceanography. The ratio is generally expressed as δ 18 O, which

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Xubin Zeng, Mike Barlage, Chris Castro, and Kelly Fling

a continent and was estimated to be 70%. This view is incorrect because it was based on a simple and incorrect picture of the water cycle in which the atmospheric moisture inflow to a region, rather than the moisture convergence, is equal to runoff and hence recycled precipitation is equivalent to E ( Eltahir and Bras 1996 ). This issue has also been studied using isotope data. Isotopes of water depend on the temperature and history of the water, and the analysis of the isotope data in

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Franziska Aemisegger and Lukas Papritz

humidity and stable water isotope measurements, as well as trajectory analysis. From analyzing the observed anomalies in SLH, SST, , surface humidity gradient, and 20-m integrated water vapor associated with the respective leading atmospheric circulation variability modes in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, it becomes clear that changes in regional evaporation patterns induced by cold-air advection cannot be deduced from thermodynamic steady-state considerations alone. Even though it seems

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Alan R. Bandy, Terese L. Bandy, Otto Youngbluth, and Thomas L. Owens

ABSTRACT Instrumentation and chemical sampling and analysis procedures are described for making measurements ofatmospheric carbon disulfide in the concentration range 1-1000 pptv from tethered balloon platforms. Resultsof a study on the CS2 composition of air downwind of a saltwater marsh are reported. A method for obtainingthe necessary data for solving the budget equations for surface fluxes, chemical formation rates and chemicaldestruction rates using data acquired from tethered balloon platforms

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Jessica L. Conroy and Jonathan T. Overpeck

somewhere over the Tibetan Plateau ( Winkler and Wang 1993 ; Herzschuh 2006 ; Morrill et al. 2006 ), but this boundary is often qualitative. The most quantitative work to date on the maximum extent of monsoon influence in Tibet is based on stable isotopes of precipitation from a handful of short station records. These records indicate the monsoonal moisture boundary lies at ~35°N ( Tian et al. 2001 ). In our analysis, Tibet is part of the ICM region, an area that extends much farther north and west

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Yongjie Huang and Xiaopeng Cui

and forecasting of torrential rains, related floods, and geological hazards. There are several methods to identify moisture sources and transport paths for rainfall events, such as isotopic analysis ( Weyhenmeyer et al. 2002 ; Bonne et al. 2014 ), Eulerian methods ( Holman and Vavrus 2012 ; Sun and Wang 2013 ), and Lagrangian methods ( Gustafsson et al. 2010 ; Drumond et al. 2011a , b ). However, it is impossible for isotopic analysis methods to examine past events for which no rain samples are

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