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Martin J. Murphy and Ronald L. Holle

. These results may be contrasted with lightning climatologies taken from two low Earth-orbiting satellites, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) ( Christian et al. 2003 ; Cecil et al. 2014 ), as well as the ground-based global lightning dataset GLD360 ( Said et al. 2013 , their Figs. 4a and 5a). These satellite- and ground-based climatologies show that the overall lightning maximum resides over land and extends well northward into Sonora and the U.S. states of

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B. S. Felzer, Carol R. Ember, R. Cheng, and M. Jiang

−1 , respectively (mean T + = 0.78 for R20S and 0.72 for R10S), whereas other indices performed relatively poorly, suggesting that the ability to hindcast flooding may be associated with some antecedent soil moisture conditions. We further explore this by using a process-based land surface model (TEM) to include soil moisture conditions ( Fig. S4 of the online supplemental material). TEM is a prognostically based numerical model of biogeochemical processes between vegetation, soils, and the

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Felicia O. Akinyemi

perception of and adaptation to climate change in Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4308, 53 pp. [Available online at .] 10.1596/1813-9450-4308 Mashame , G. , and F. O. Akinyemi , 2016 : Towards a remote sensing based assessment of land susceptibility to degradation: Examining seasonal variation in land use–land cover for modelling land degradation in a semi-arid context . ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. , 3 , 137 – 144 . 10

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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

recent maritime piracy. For a myriad of political and commercial reasons, both governments and industry downplay and underestimate the scale of modern maritime piracy. The International Maritime Bureau ( IMB 2011 ), for example, estimates that as many as half of all pirate attacks are unreported. Somali pirates typically attack using two or more small, high-speed open boats or “skiffs.” By using larger vessels, or “mother ships,” pirates can greatly extend the distance from land that skiff attacks

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

for some countries and regions, for example, Australia ( Mondragón 2014 ; ; ), there remain significant gaps in where these calendars occur and in the level of detail provided. Differences between calendars can include the number of seasons into which the year is divided and the plants and animals used to mark the change of seasons. National Meteorological Services (NMSs) in

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Michael Robert Nkuba, Raban Chanda, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, Margaret Najjingo Mangheni, David Lesolle, and Edward Kato

. Magole , and D. Kgathi , 2012 : Indigenous knowledge and land use policy: Implications for livelihoods of flood recession farming communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana . Phys. Chem. Earth , 50–52 , 185 – 195 , . 10.1016/j.pce.2012.09.013 Mpandeli , S. , and P. Maponya , 2013 : The use of climate forecasts information by farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa . J. Agric. Sci. , 5 , 47 – 55 ,

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Daniel Leppert, Tobias Dalhaus, and Carl-Johan Lagerkvist

.1016/j.apgeog.2013.07.012 . 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.07.012 Yang , J. S. , Y. Q. Wang , and P. V. August , 2004 : Estimation of land surface temperature using spatial interpolation and satellite-derived surface emissivity . J. Environ. Inform. , 4 , 37 – 44 , . 10.3808/jei.200400035 1 In the U.S. federal crop insurance program, area yield index insurances (Area Risk Protection Insurance; https

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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

appeals to other parts of the Empire for supplies: the First Fleet Captain, Governor Arthur Phillip, sent to South Africa for more provisions in May 1789 and Governor Macquarie ordered 250 tons of wheat from Bengal “to avert a famine” in December 1814. Early settlers searched river estuaries north and west of Sydney Cove to locate good land to farm but anecdotal evidence suggests that meticulous weather observations were not used (e.g., McAfee 1981 ). The Parramatta River was explored by Arthur

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Amanda E. Cravens, Jamie McEvoy, Dionne Zoanni, Shelley Crausbay, Aaron Ramirez, and Ashley E. Cooper

diverted to irrigation; the UMH has some 474 000 acres of cropland ( Raheem et. al 2019 ). The basin experiences frequent drought, which is compounded by the Gallatin Valley’s rapidly growing population (which has doubled since 1990) and the region’s shifting demographics and land use as the economy diversifies beyond its traditional base of agriculture and tourism ( Rasker 2018 ). The basin is recognized for its outdoor recreation, which includes recreational fishing, skiing, hiking, and wildlife

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Michael Paolisso, Ellen Douglas, Ashley Enrici, Paul Kirshen, Chris Watson, and Matthias Ruth

. For example, the National Wildlife Federation recommends (i) requiring local governments to consider sea level rise when amending their plans for coastal land use; (ii) expanding Maryland and Virginia’s 100-ft buffer zones and increasing the enforcement of existing buffer zone areas; and (iii) developing policies such as rolling easements or mandatory setbacks to discourage new development in vulnerable coastal areas ( Glick et al. 2008 , p. 10; see also Chesapeake Bay Foundation 2007 ). However

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