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Tobias Kukulka and Ramsey R. Harcourt

Craig , P. D. , and M. L. Banner , 1994 : Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 24 , 2546 – 2559 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro , E. A. , 2014 : Turbulence in the upper

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Tobias Kukulka, Albert J. Plueddemann, John H. Trowbridge, and Peter P. Sullivan

wind-aligned roll vortices, called Langmuir circulation (LC) ( Langmuir 1938 ). The goal of this paper is to investigate the turbulent processes and mechanisms contributing to rapid mixed layer deepening, which has been observed in open oceans ( Smith 1992 ; Plueddemann et al. 1996 ). Although, generally, both breaking waves and LC are integral to upper-ocean mixing, this article focuses only on the contribution of LC to mixed layer dynamics. Our assumption—that mixing processes near the base of

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Ramsey R. Harcourt

from a comparison case with no Stokes drift translates to a dissipation scale that exceeds . Further development and tuning of a SMC model assumes that in the near-surface region of strong vortex force TKE production, a corresponding growth in the dissipation length scale occurs, with the result that both it and the vertical TKE component may be about double their values in the nonwave case. This expectation is in line with the qualitative understanding that the presence of Langmuir circulation

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L. Cavaleri, B. Fox-Kemper, and M. Hemer

layers. Basic ideas: Wave breaking injects turbulence in the upper layers of the ocean. Wave orbital motion induces turbulence (still debated). Wave-induced Langmuir circulation leads to a vigorous mixing of the oceanic boundary layer. Wind waves are a primary source of turbulent energy into the surface ocean, and thereby aid in mixing heat, mass, and other tracers throughout the boundary layer. Three wave-related mechanisms are noted ( Babanin et al. 2009 ): the injection of turbulence in the course

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

. 2003 ). Measuring the evolution of the wave directional spectrum in a tropical storm is critical for improving hurricane intensity forecasts, as the Stokes drift of the surface wave field interacting with the vorticity of surface shear currents produces Langmuir circulations (LCs) through the vortex force of the Craik–Leibovich theory ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). LCs contribute to the mixing of the upper ocean and hence to the enthalpy transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Sullivan and

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Tobias Kukulka and Fabrice Veron

. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 120 , 7559 – 7573 , . 10.1002/2015JC010840 Colbo , K. , and M. Li , 1999 : Parameterizing particle dispersion in Langmuir circulation . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 26 059 – 26 068 , . 10.1029/1999JC900190 Corrsin , S. , 1963 : Estimates of the relations between Eulerian and Lagrangian scales in large Reynolds number turbulence . J

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Wu-ting Tsai, Shi-ming Chen, and Guan-hung Lu

pairs. The vortical flow structure is identical to that of Langmuir circulations. The averaged spacing between the streaks (≈0.3 λ ) and the depth of the vortical cells (≈0.15 λ ) approximate that of Langmuir cells, which arise from the interaction between the wind-driven shear flow and surface waves of a similar wavelength and steepness ( Tsai et al. 2013 ); the characteristic velocity and vorticity of the cells, however, are one order of magnitude less than that of Langmuir cells. Fig . 5

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Eric A. D'Asaro

. Discussion Surface waves are likely responsible for the enhanced turbulent vertical kinetic energy found here, either through the action of wave breaking or Langmuir circulation. Terray et al. (1996) measured energy dissipation rates near the surface in the ocean boundary layer and found them far above those in wall-bounded boundary layers. They attribute this to surface wave breaking and find the excess energy dissipation equal to the flux of energy F ww from the wind to the waves. Using a large

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Luc Lenain and Nick Pizzo

( Kenyon 1969 ). Accurately estimating the Stokes drift is critical for a number of applications; from the study of upper ocean and air–sea interaction processes, such as Langmuir circulations ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Leibovich 1983 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ) that rely on a proper representation of the wave-induced drift ( McWilliams and Restrepo 1999 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ), to the prediction of the transport of pollutants, oil spills and drifting objects (see also Lenain et al. 2019a

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Joseph Skitka, J. B. Marston, and Baylor Fox-Kemper

forcing is based on McWilliams et al. (1997) . The domain size and resolution have been reduced in this work, while most other case parameters are identical (see Fig. 5b ). Langmuir circulation is modeled using the phase-averaged Craik–Leibovich equations ( Craik 1977 ), which are given in Eq. (26) . The parameters used for this case are provided in Table 2 , where u * = τ 1 / 2 ρ 0 − ⁡ ( 1 / 2 ) is the friction velocity, Re * = ⁡ ( u * L m ) / ν z , and the Langmuir number is defined as (32

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