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Kalpesh Patil, M. C. Deo, and M. Ravichandran

based on past SST data, while the one by Garcia-Gorriz and Garcia-Sanchez (2007) considered meteorological variables as input to predict targeted satellite-derived SST values in the western Mediterranean Sea. The networks trained in this way predicted the seasonal and interannual variability of the SST well. Gupta and Malmgren (2009) compared the prediction skills of different methods based on certain transfer functions, regressions, and an NN at the Antarctic and Pacific Oceans and found that

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B. S. Sandeepan, V. G. Panchang, S. Nayak, K. Krishna Kumar, and J. M. Kaihatu

shamal winds have distinct features in the winter and the summer. The winter shamals (October–March) are related to midlatitude disturbances and frontal systems, and are characterized by abrupt and intense winds often accompanied by thunderstorms and high seas. Summer shamals (May–August) occur as a result of the pressure difference between the monsoon low pressure system centered over northern India and the stationary high pressure system centered over the eastern Mediterranean. These pressure

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Berta Biescas, Barry Ruddick, Jean Kormann, Valentí Sallarès, Mladen R. Nedimović, and Sandro Carniel

. , 2008 : Imaging meddy finestructure using multichannel seismic reflection data. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L11609 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL033971 . Biescas, B. , Armi L. , Sallarès V. , and Gràcia E. , 2010 : Seismic imaging of staircase layers below the Mediterranean undercurrent . Deep-Sea Res. I , 57 , 1345 – 1353 , doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.07.001 . Biescas, B. , Ruddick B. , Nedimović M. , Sallarès V. , Bornstein G. , and Mojica J. , 2014 : Recovery of temperature

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Stephanie Guinehut, Christine Coatanoan, Anne-Lise Dhomps, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, and Gilles Larnicol

1. Introduction In November 2007, the global Argo array of profiling floats has reached its initial target of 3000 operating floats worldwide. The array now provides for the first time a global monitoring of ocean temperature and salinity data in real time ( Gould et al. 2004 ). In the very recent years, these new datasets have led to a series of new scientific investigations. As part of climate variability and global sea level rise studies, Argo data are, in particular, of great interest. They

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G. Reverdin, S. Morisset, H. Bellenger, J. Boutin, N. Martin, P. Blouch, J. Rolland, F. Gaillard, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, and B. Ward

M. J. , Le Borgne P. , Roquet H. , Autret E. , Piollé J.-F. , and Lavender S. , 2008 : Diurnal warm-layer events in the western Mediterranean and European shelf seas . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L04601 , doi:10.1029/2007GL033071 . O'Carroll, A. G. , Eyre J. R. , and Saunders R. W. , 2008 : Three-way error analysis between AATSR, AMSR-E, and in situ sea surface temperature observations . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 25 , 1197 – 1207 . Parsons, D. H. , Shapiro M. A

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J.-Y. Delahaye, C. Guerin, J. P. Vinson, H. Dupuis, A. Weill, H. Branger, L. Eymard, J. Lavergnat, and G. Lachaud

Planétaires (CNRS), France (CETP) refractometer and explain how previous technical difficulties have been overcome. We then show how the system has been used in an experiment on an oceanographic ship. Finally, an analysis of data collected during the severe conditions of the Couplage avec l’ATmosphère en Conditions Hivernales (CATCH) experiment in the North Sea ( Eymard et al. 1999 ) and the FETCH (Flux, Etat de la mer et Télédétection en condition de fetCH variable) experiment in the Mediterranean Sea

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Gianluca Borzelli and Roberto Ligi

northern California slope. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 11 783–11 798. 10.1029/JC090iC06p11783 Lagerloef, G. S. E., and R. L. Bernstein, 1988: Empirical orthogonal function analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer surface temperature patterns in the Santa Barbara Channel. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 6863–6873. 10.1029/JC093iC06p06863 Manzella, G. M. R., G. P. Gasparini, and M. Astraldi, 1988: Water exchange between the eastern and the western Mediterranean through the Strait of Sicily. Deep-Sea

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G. Reverdin, F. Marin, B. Bourlès, and P. Lherminier

suggested from regional and global studies that this equation was not adequate for post-1995 XBT data (D. Snowden et al. 2008, unpublished manuscript; Wijffels et al. 2009 ), whereas Reseghetti et al. (2007) indicated for Mediterranean Sea profiles that the equation of Hanawa et al. (1995) is valid there. Roemmich and Cornuelle (1987) investigated the error in XBT temperature and its digitization, and ways to reduce the error by calibrating each individual probe and letting the probe rest in a

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Fabien Roquet, Jean-Benoit Charrassin, Stephane Marchand, Lars Boehme, Mike Fedak, Gilles Reverdin, and Christophe Guinet

specifications of CTD–SRDLs, we describe the delayed-mode calibration of 10 CTD–SRDLs deployed on elephant seals in Kerguelen Islands in 2007. This dataset comprises a total of 3045 profiles ( Fig. 2 , Table 1 ), mainly sampled over the Kerguelen Plateau and in the western Australian–Antarctic Basin (for a description of the area, see, e.g., Roquet et al. 2009 ). The calibration is divided in two steps. First, at-sea experiments were carried out in the Mediterranean Sea before CTD–SRDLs were deployed on

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Kalpesh Patil and M. C. Deo

:// . Francis , P. A. , P. N. Vinayachandran , and S. S. C. Shenoi , 2013 : The Indian Ocean forecast system . Curr. Sci. , 104 , 1354 – 1368 . Garcia‐Gorriz , E. , and J. Garcia‐Sanchez , 2007 : Prediction of sea surface temperatures in the western Mediterranean Sea by neural networks using satellite observations . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L11603 , . 10.1029/2007GL029888 Guan , Z. , and T

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