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Álvaro González-Reyes, James McPhee, Duncan A. Christie, Carlos Le Quesne, Paul Szejner, Mariano H. Masiokas, Ricardo Villalba, Ariel A. Muñoz, and Sebastián Crespo

1. Introduction The Andes is the largest mountain chain in the Southern Hemisphere, acting as a regional “water tower” for many South American countries from the tropics to the southern tip of the continent (8°N–55°S). The Mediterranean Andes region (MA; 30°–37°S) is located in the transition between two major macroclimate regions in South America, namely, the subtropical desert Andes to the north and the wet temperate Andes to the south ( Lliboutry 1998 ). Several studies in the region have

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P. R. Berliner and K. Droppelmann

Negev: Low pressure systems in the Mediterranean basin, usually associated with an extensive cloud cover, that produce a relatively low-intensity rainfall over large areas. The Red Sea trough, typical for spring and autumn, which results in very localized rainstorms of high intensity and short duration. An additional feature that frequently affects radiation patterns during the transitional seasons in the Negev region is the chamsin—a hot, dry wind coming from either the Arabian Peninsula

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E. I. Nikolopoulos, N. S. Bartsotas, E. N. Anagnostou, and G. Kallos

satellite QPE during heavy precipitation events in a western Mediterranean mountainous area. Following the general methodological framework of Zhang et al. (2013) , the objective of this work is to investigate and demonstrate how the use of high-resolution NWP forecasts could have improved radar and satellite QPE for the 2013 Colorado flash flood event. This work expands on that of Zhang et al. (2013) in two main aspects. First, a different NWP model is applied at high (1 km) resolution and simulated

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James V. Rudolph and Katja Friedrich

Mediterranean Sea ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Rudolph et al. 2011 ). An additional benefit of this location is the inclusion of data from the Monte Lema radar in intensive observation periods (IOPs) and subsequent analysis resulting from the 1999 MAP experiment ( Bougeault et al. 2001 ; Houze et al. 2001 ; Medina and Houze 2003 ; Yuter and Houze 2003 ; Rotunno and Houze 2007 ). Because of the difference in terrain on the north and south sides of the radar, the dataset used for this study was divided into

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Shakeel Asharaf, Andreas Dobler, and Bodo Ahrens

al. (2002) compared four atmospheric general circulation models and concluded that the coupling strength between the land surface and the atmosphere are significantly varying in the model simulations. Very recently, based on statistical analysis of multimodel ensembles, Orlowsky and Seneviratne (2010) found a remarkable coupling strength between soil moisture and precipitation for specific regions. They further compared the influence of soil moisture and sea surface temperature (SST), with the

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Liming Zhu, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Meiling Sheng, and Zheng Duan

) pointed out that the low-level convergence by land/sea in southern China was the main reason for the prevailing nocturnal rainfall on the windward slope of the mountainous area in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. But over large-scale mountains and adjacent plains or basins in the west and north of China, many researchers also pointed out that propagation of the diurnal rainfall peak from late afternoon to night is strongly associated with the thermally driven regional mountain–plains solenoid (MPS

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Di Tian, Ming Pan, and Eric F. Wood

), Mediterranean Basin (MED), north Asia (NAS), central Asia (CAS), Tibet (TIB), east Asia (EAS), South Asia (SAS), and Southeast Asia (SEA). An asterisk denotes that the anomaly correlation is significant at the 0.05 level. 4. Concluding remarks A primary goal of GEWEX is to improve coupled model predictions through the evaluation of climate models using regional-to-continental datasets. This study contributes to this goal by evaluating the surface water and energy budget variables from AM2.5 over land at

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Alexandre B. Pieri, Jost von Hardenberg, Antonio Parodi, and Antonello Provenzale

different parameterizations such as spatial resolution, microphysics, and convective schemes is an essential step before embarking on the use of model outputs to assess the impact of climate change. In this framework, Europe represents an especially challenging region for modeling precipitation, since it is exposed to intense synoptic perturbations from the Atlantic and to moisture-rich inflows from the Mediterranean and is characterized by complex orographic features. Climatology of the European region

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Timothy H. Raupach and Alexis Berne

warm, moist air are produced over the Mediterranean Sea and pushed by southerly flow onto the land, where topography triggers convective activity ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Miniscloux et al. 2001 ; Delrieu et al. 2005 ; Ricard et al. 2012 ). Such synoptic systems are often quasi-stationary, leading to events that can last from hours to days and produce high rainfall totals ( Ricard et al. 2012 ). These broad meteorological conditions are well understood ( Lin et al. 2001 ; Nuissier et al. 2011

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Sjoukje Philip, Sarah F. Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Emma Aalbers, Robert Vautard, Friederike Otto, Karsten Haustein, Florence Habets, and Roop Singh

. The highest 3-day rainfall occurred over 29–31 May (see Fig. 1 ). Over these three days, moisture contributing to this rainfall converged from multiple sources and moved into the region mainly from the east, circulating around the low pressure system. Potential source regions include the Mediterranean, Baltic, subtropical Atlantic, eastern Atlantic, and moisture recycling over continental Europe. Fig . 1. Precipitation averaged in western Europe (40°–60°N, 15°W–25°E) over 29–31 May 2016 (mm day

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