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David M. Romps

1. Introduction To motivate the study of the entropy budget, consider first an enclosed, dry atmosphere. For an enclosed atmosphere in a steady state, the sum of all the entropy sources must be zero (here, “sources” is shorthand for sources and sinks). In the case of an enclosed, dry atmosphere, all of the entropy sources are simply heat sources divided by the temperature. For example, possible heat sources include radiation ( Q ), conduction of heat (− ∇ · J , where J is the conductive

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H. L. Kuo

1973 H. L. KUO 53Planetary Boundary Layer Flow of a Stable Atmosphere Over the Globe H. L. KuoDept. of the Geophysical Sciences, The Uni*ersity of Chicago 60637(Manuscript received 19 April 1972, in revised form 18 September 1972)ABSTRACT When the temperature and pressure perturbations are taken into consideration in the boundary layerequations, the stable

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Y. Orsolini and P. Simon

VOL. 52, NO. 22 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 15NOVEMBER 1995Idealized Life Cycles of Planetary-Scale Barotropic Waves in ~he Middle Atmosphere Y. ORSOLINI AND P. SIMONMdtdo-France, Centre National de Recherches Mdtdorologiques, Toulouse, France(Manuscript received 3 November 1993, in final form 10 March 1994)ABSTRACT A nonlinear nondivergent barotropic model is used to

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L. Coy, I. Štajner, A. M. DaSilva, J. Joiner, R. B. Rood, S. Pawson, and S. J. Lin

1. Introduction The 4-day wave is a relatively common planetary-scale stratopause disturbance found mainly during the Southern Hemisphere winter. This high-latitude wave consists of wavenumber-1 (wave 1) and wavenumber-2 (wave 2) (and some higher wavenumber) components moving at nearly the same rotational period (the time for a crest to travel around a latitude circle), about 3–4 days, so that the period of the wave-2 component is about 1.5–2 days. Many studies of the 4-day wave have focused on

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James E. Hansen

~400 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.u~E28Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres.Part II. Sunlight Reflected by Terrestrial Water Clouds JAMES E. HANSENGoddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, N. Y.(Manuscript received 3 August 1971, in revised form 23 August 1971) The intensity and polarization of sunlight reflected by terrestrial water

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C. McLandress and N. A. McFarlane

1966 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 50, No. 13Interactions between Orographic Gravity Wave Drag and Forced Stationary Planetary Waves in the Winter Northern Hemisphere Middle Atmosphere C. Mc LANDRESSInstitute for Space and Terrestrial Science, North York, Ontario, Canada N. A. MCFARLANECanadian Climate Centre, Downsview, Ontario, Canada(Manuscript received 2 December

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W. E. Meador and W. R. Weaver

630 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME 37Two-Stream Approximations to Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres: A Unified Description of Existing Methods and a New Improvement W. E. MEADOR AND W. R. WEAVERNASA, Langley Reseacch Center, Harnplon. VA 23665 (Manuscript received 15 October 1979) ABSTRACTExisting two-stream approximations to radiative transfer theory for particulate media are shown to berepresented by identical forms of coupled differential

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Graeme L. Stephens, Martin Wild, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Tristan L’Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and David S. Henderson

1. Introduction It has been understood for some time that changes to the strength of the greenhouse effect are fundamental to our understanding of the climate of earth and how it can change ( Arrenhius 1896 ; Callendar 1938 ; Kasting 1989 ). Increases in greenhouse gases like CO 2 induce a warming of the surface and lower atmosphere. The increase in water vapor that follows a warming results in a further strengthening of the greenhouse effect by increased emission of radiation from the

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William J. Randel, Fei Wu, and Piers Forster

. Leovy , 1987 : Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp . Birner , T. , 2006 : Fine-scale structure of the extratropical tropopause region. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 . D04104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006301 . Birner , T. , A. Dörnbrack , and U. Schumann , 2002 : How sharp is the tropopause at midlatitudes? Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 . 1700, doi:10.1029/2002GL015142 . Forster , P. M. , and K. P. Shine , 2002 : Assessing the climate impact of trends in stratospheric water

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Tatsuya Yamashita, Masatsugu Odaka, Ko-ichiro Sugiyama, Kensuke Nakajima, Masaki Ishiwatari, Seiya Nishizawa, Yoshiyuki O. Takahashi, and Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi

1. Introduction In the Martian atmosphere, the major constituent, CO 2 , condenses, in contrast to Earth’s atmosphere where a minor constituent, H 2 O, does. Investigation of possible structures of circulation fields and properties of clouds in such an atmosphere, especially a dense CO 2 atmosphere, is not only interesting as a problem of fluid mechanics, but also as an important target of research on the early Mars, where the scattering greenhouse effect of CO 2 ice cloud could have played

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