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C. Oludhe, A. Sankarasubramanian, Tushar Sinha, Naresh Devineni, and Upmanu Lall

planning, risk management, and decision making to minimize socioeconomic impacts and to meet increased energy demands in the near future. Kenya is highly dependent on hydropower, which constitutes over 75% of the total electricity generated in the country. The bulk of this electricity is obtained from five generating plants along the upper Tana River basin ( Fig. 1a ), namely Masinga (40 MW), Kamburu (94.2 MW), Kindaruma (44 MW), Gitaru (225 MW), and Kiambere (156 MW), typically known as the Seven

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Kristen Guirguis, Alexander Gershunov, Alexander Tardy, and Rupa Basu

most heat-related deaths are preventable with adequate warning tools and effective emergency planning. Since climate change has the potential to increase the frequency of these types of events ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ; Allen et al. 2012 ), improved heat-warning systems are urgently needed. This would require a better knowledge of the full impact of extreme heat on morbidity and mortality. California has unique challenges for heat-wave preparedness owing to its diversity of

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Claire Cambardella, Brian D. Fath, Andrea Werdenigg, Christian Gulas, and Harald Katzmair

1. Introduction With the passing of the Paris Climate Agreement, the global community is taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date, 185 countries have signed on to the agreement, but given varying cultural backgrounds, resources, governments, and regulatory structures, the development of climate protection plans will be different and individually designed in each nationally determined contribution [United Nations ( UN) Framework on Climate Change 2020 ]. This poses a challenge

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

request. For example if the forecast is shy by 1 degree of the rigid criterion but a huge outdoor event is planned . . . the flexibility to issue say an advisory may be a good idea to promote situational awareness and safety.” “Adjustments from criteria should be allowed when health officials request . . . Criteria ha[ve] been developed based upon input from our partners and we need to respect the value of their knowledge and expertise.” 5) Creating new policies/criteria Among the suggestions for new

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Laura Vang Rasmussen, Ole Mertz, Kjeld Rasmussen, Hector Nieto, Abdou Ali, and Idrissa Maiga

extensive collection and storage of fodder Keep animals away from river banks to avoid drowning Plan for more vaccines and drugs for water-related diseases Plan for a late transhumance Fig . 1. Seasonal forecast for 2013 delivered by the Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa. The precipitation is issued by tercile probabilities for below-, near-, and above-normal precipitation. The tercile probabilities are based on a historical precipitation record. (From ACMAD 2013 .) 3. Pastoral behavior context The

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Kelly Mahoney, F. Martin Ralph, Klaus Wolter, Nolan Doesken, Michael Dettinger, Daniel Gottas, Timothy Coleman, and Allen White

precipitation for both short- and long-term planning. On seasonal and subseasonal time scales, reservoir operations are modified to accommodate precipitation and runoff forecasts. Longer-term regulations and planning for structural and operational safety of dams and other water management infrastructure are commonly based on theoretical estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) that might fall during each season of the year. While reference documents and procedures have existed for decades to

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

, precipitation, and increasing atmospheric water vapor content ( Collins et al. 2013 ). Climate change–induced alteration of the water cycle will likely have profound effects on land cover and land use ( Hewitson et al. 2014 ; Settele et al. 2015 ), such as agricultural practices and planning and plant species redistribution, and vice versa. The interactions among climate, the water cycle, ecosystems, and LCLUC are complex, and understanding them is a grand challenge. Specifically, we need to understand how

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Alan W. Black and Walker S. Ashley

that reduce vulnerability to these hazards include having a plan in place to address them, having a high school or college education attainment level, having a basement, and hearing sirens ( Legates and Biddle 1999 ; Balluz et al. 2000 ; Brown et al. 2002 ). Other factors can greatly increase vulnerability to these storms, such as housing type, the time of day, day of week, time of year, and/or age. In terms of housing type, the most vulnerable populations are those living in mobile homes

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

; King et al. 2015 ; King et al. 2016 ; Lopez et al. 2018 ), sea level ( Carson et al. 2016 ; Lyu et al. 2014 ), current system upwelling ( Brady et al. 2017 ), and different ocean properties ( Keller et al. 2014 ; Henson et al. 2017 ). Finding ToE is relevant as it serves as a marker of human-induced climate change. Recent studies also mention its importance for decision-making, especially when implementing adaptation and mitigation plans ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ; Zhou et al. 2018 ). ToE is most

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

. National Weather Service. Accessed December 2013. [Available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mission.php .] Perry, R. W. , and Lindell M. , 1991 : The effects of ethnicity on evacuation decision-making . Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters , 9 , 47 – 68 . Perry, R. W. , Lindell M. , and Greene M. R. , 1981 : Evacuation Planning in Emergency Management. Lexington Books, 199 pp . Quarantelli, E. L. , 1980 : Evacuation behavior and problems: Findings and implications from the research

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