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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

the social sciences? Any hope we have to address the impacts of climatic change better is predicated on our ability to understand the problem and come up with viable solutions. From an impact perspective, individuals, communities, institutions (rules, norms, and practices), and organizations at every scale are an integral part of the climatic change problem either by being vulnerable to its impacts or by being able to avoid (plan and prepare) and respond to them (adapt). Early on, pioneers in the

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Cindy H. Chiu, Sara J. Vagi, Amy F. Wolkin, John Paul Martin, and Rebecca S. Noe

. Directions for future research The purpose of this survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the population of Burleigh County regarding a specific warning message distributed by the NWS. The goal was to obtain quick information that was generalizable to the target area, to be used for local public health planning but not necessarily generalizable to the population at large. The results, while accomplishing the intended purpose, also raise many questions about the distribution of

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Kimberly S. Wolske, Laura V. Rasmussen, James C. Arnott, Margaret Kalcic, and Christine J. Kirchhoff

their decision making. Specifically, we expected the in-person group to be more accepting of uncertain projections from climate models and thus more likely to report using that information. a. Study 1 In our first study, we tested whether the form of interaction affects understanding of and intention to use information provided in a climate adaptation planning tool. 1) Participants and procedure To approximate potential users’ expertise in the context of climate-related decision-making, we recruited

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John H. Sorensen, Michael K. Lindell, Earl J. Baker, and William P. Lehman

12 to 42 years ago. Consequently, there is no realistic likelihood of obtaining records about individual jurisdictions’ decision processes. However, this understanding could be achieved in future research that measures important warning issuance factors and analyzes their significance in explaining variance in issuance times. These factors include formalization of planning and implementation procedures (e.g., warning triggers have been established), performance and interpersonal relations (e

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C. Oludhe, A. Sankarasubramanian, Tushar Sinha, Naresh Devineni, and Upmanu Lall

planning, risk management, and decision making to minimize socioeconomic impacts and to meet increased energy demands in the near future. Kenya is highly dependent on hydropower, which constitutes over 75% of the total electricity generated in the country. The bulk of this electricity is obtained from five generating plants along the upper Tana River basin ( Fig. 1a ), namely Masinga (40 MW), Kamburu (94.2 MW), Kindaruma (44 MW), Gitaru (225 MW), and Kiambere (156 MW), typically known as the Seven

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Kristen Guirguis, Alexander Gershunov, Alexander Tardy, and Rupa Basu

most heat-related deaths are preventable with adequate warning tools and effective emergency planning. Since climate change has the potential to increase the frequency of these types of events ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ; Allen et al. 2012 ), improved heat-warning systems are urgently needed. This would require a better knowledge of the full impact of extreme heat on morbidity and mortality. California has unique challenges for heat-wave preparedness owing to its diversity of

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Claire Cambardella, Brian D. Fath, Andrea Werdenigg, Christian Gulas, and Harald Katzmair

1. Introduction With the passing of the Paris Climate Agreement, the global community is taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date, 185 countries have signed on to the agreement, but given varying cultural backgrounds, resources, governments, and regulatory structures, the development of climate protection plans will be different and individually designed in each nationally determined contribution [United Nations ( UN) Framework on Climate Change 2020 ]. This poses a challenge

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

request. For example if the forecast is shy by 1 degree of the rigid criterion but a huge outdoor event is planned . . . the flexibility to issue say an advisory may be a good idea to promote situational awareness and safety.” “Adjustments from criteria should be allowed when health officials request . . . Criteria ha[ve] been developed based upon input from our partners and we need to respect the value of their knowledge and expertise.” 5) Creating new policies/criteria Among the suggestions for new

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Laura Vang Rasmussen, Ole Mertz, Kjeld Rasmussen, Hector Nieto, Abdou Ali, and Idrissa Maiga

extensive collection and storage of fodder Keep animals away from river banks to avoid drowning Plan for more vaccines and drugs for water-related diseases Plan for a late transhumance Fig . 1. Seasonal forecast for 2013 delivered by the Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa. The precipitation is issued by tercile probabilities for below-, near-, and above-normal precipitation. The tercile probabilities are based on a historical precipitation record. (From ACMAD 2013 .) 3. Pastoral behavior context The

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Kelly Mahoney, F. Martin Ralph, Klaus Wolter, Nolan Doesken, Michael Dettinger, Daniel Gottas, Timothy Coleman, and Allen White

precipitation for both short- and long-term planning. On seasonal and subseasonal time scales, reservoir operations are modified to accommodate precipitation and runoff forecasts. Longer-term regulations and planning for structural and operational safety of dams and other water management infrastructure are commonly based on theoretical estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) that might fall during each season of the year. While reference documents and procedures have existed for decades to

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