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Jackie C. May, Clark Rowley, and Charlie N. Barron

1. Introduction The combination of latent and sensible turbulent heat fluxes and solar and longwave radiative heat fluxes largely determines the ocean surface heat budget. The heating and cooling of the ocean surface affect oceanic properties such as mixed-layer and sonic-layer depths, as well as atmospheric features such as stability and convection. Ocean forecast modeling is highly dependent on these ocean surface heat fluxes. Most often, the heat flux fields used to force ocean model

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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. N. Holben, S. Mattoo, L. A. Remer, T. F. Eck, J. Vaughan, and Bernadette Chatenet

scattering albedo, or smaller backscattering coefficient. Sky heterogeneity, discussed later, may also contribute to this difference. The main purpose of measuring the downward fluxes is to estimate the aerosol radiative impact at the surface. When combined with satellite estimate of radiative impact at the top of the atmosphere, a full impact on the radiative budget can be achieved. Aerosol backscattering to space reduces the fraction of sunlight absorbed in the atmosphere and by the surface. Therefore

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Francisco P. J. Valero, Shelly K. Pope, Robert G. Ellingson, Anthony W. Strawa, and John Vitko Jr.

1024 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 13Determination of Clear-Sky Radiative Flux Profiles, Heating Rates, and Optical Depths Using Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles as a Platform FRANCISCO P. J. VALERO AND SHELLY K. POPEAtmospheric Research Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La dolla, California ROBERT G. ELLINGSON

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Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

in models and observations. This study uses a novel approach for comparing models and observations that enables separate atmospheric and surface contributions to reflected SW TOA and net downward SW surface radiative flux variations to be quantified. The methodology uses only upward and downward TOA and surface radiative fluxes, enabling its application to readily available satellite, reanalysis and climate model output without the need for introducing more complicated instrument simulators into

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Joachim H. Josepoh, Jean Laquinta, and Bernard Pinty

2326 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VoLusm9The Use of Two-Stream Approximations for the Parameterizationof Solar Radiative Energy Fluxes through VegetationJOACHIM H. JOSEPH,* JEAN IAQUINTA, AND BERNARD PINTYL.A.M.P.-Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere, France(Manuscript received 15 March 1995, in final form 4 December 1995)ABSTRACT Two-stream approximations have

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Axel J. Schweiger and Jeffrey R. Key

948 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME33Arctic Ocean Radiative Fluxes and Cloud Forcing Estimated from the ISCCP C2 Cloud Dataset, 1983-1990 AXEL J. $CHWEIGERPolar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington JEFFREY R. K~YCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Division of Cryospheric

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Shashi K. Gupta, David P. Kratz, Anne C. Wilber, and L. Cathy Nguyen

1. Introduction The radiative fluxes at the earth's surface are major components of the surface energy budget, and are as important to the study of weather and climate phenomena as radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). These fluxes play an important role in oceanic and atmospheric general circulation patterns ( Ramanathan 1986 ; Wild et al. 1995 ). Developing a long time series of the surface radiation budget (SRB) is essential for accomplishing the objectives of a number of

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Catherine Gautier and Martin Landsfeld

flux during the experiment over an area typically covered by the grid cell of a general circulation model (GCM). This information is expected to help general circulation modelers involved in ARM projects develop improved parameterizations of clouds and their interaction with radiation in their models through validation of their results with our satellite derived parameters. In this paper, section 2 describes the main features of the radiative transfer model 2001. Section 3 evaluates the

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

step. Following a form similar to Trenberth (1997) , the MERRA total energy equation integrated over the atmospheric column may be written as where A E is total energy in the atmospheric column, is the horizontal transport of total atmospheric energy, R top is the downward net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), F sfc is the upwelling net surface flux, L υ is the latent heat of vaporization, L f is the latent heat of fusion, W υ is column-integrated water vapor

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J-J. Morcrette, H. W. Barker, J. N. S. Cole, M. J. Iacono, and R. Pincus

et al. 2001 ). In parallel, following comparisons with some of the surface observations discussed above ( Morcrette 2002a , b ), revisions were made to the shortwave radiation scheme (extended from 2 to 4 spectral intervals in June 2000 and then to 6 spectral intervals in April 2002). Despite the improvements brought to the representation of the clear-sky radiative fluxes by these revised/new schemes, the handling of cloudiness kept following an approach that was originally introduced 20 yr

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