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Mamoudou B. Ba, Robert G. Ellingson, and A. Gruber

1. Introduction Information on the top of the atmosphere and surface radiation budgets can be used to address different aspects of climate issues, such as developing and improving climate model parameterizations with respect to surface–atmosphere interactions ( Morel 1985 ), separating the radiative impact of clouds into contributions to the surface and to the atmosphere ( Cess and Vulis 1989 ); understanding the global hydrological cycle ( WMO 1988 ), and contributing to the International

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Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Mario Blumthaler, Rainer Schmitt, and Ann R. Webb

influence of the spectral resolution and full width at half maximum (FWHM) with respect to the photolysis frequency of ozone, J (O 1 D), which is particularly sensitive to the spectral resolution and FWHM, was investigated using radiative transfer simulations. The calculations were performed with the “uvspec” model from the libradtran package ( Mayer and Kylling 2005 ). Actinic flux density spectra were computed using the extraterrestrial spectrum with 0.1-nm resolution ( Kurucz 1992 ). These spectra

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K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, S. A. Clough, and T. J. Wagner

1. Introduction Water vapor is the most abundant and the most highly variable greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. This temporal and spatial variability greatly affects the radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and on the radiative heating rates at all layers of the atmosphere. In addition, the distribution of water vapor is a fundamental driving force behind the formation of clouds and precipitation. The pivotal importance of water vapor to these atmospheric

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Chris Jones

, but the overall behavior of FAMOUS is similar to that of HadCM3. Both the control climate and the transient response to strong radiative forcing are similar, and thus we judge that the model would be acceptable for use in scientific investigations. The time saving of a factor of 40 in the ocean component exceeds the project target of a factor of 10. Although much effort has been made to ensure that this model can be run without the use of flux adjustments, they could still be used if required

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Larry Stowe, Richard Hucek, Philip Ardanuy, and Robert Joyce

. This misrepresentation of thesurface should have little impact on the relative or absolute accuracy of different CERES design estimatesbecause the low IR and large VIS radiances obtainedfrom these areas are interpreted as arising from clouds.Because snow and clouds behave nearly the same radiatively, the magnitude of reference fluxes and absolute errors in their satellite estimates should be modifiedonly slightly by the change from snow to cloudy scenes.Relative errors should be even less sensitive

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Robert A. Weller, Sebastien P. Bigorre, Jeffrey Lord, Jonathan D. Ware, and James B. Edson

Q R is the contribution to the sensible heat resulting from rain and the heat fluxes are defined as positive downward, that is, a positive value implies that the ocean is warming. The ocean lost heat to the atmosphere in the winter and gained heat in the summer with respective extrema in December and June. The shortwave radiative heat input was maximum in June. The largest component of heat loss occurred through latent heat exchange; sensible and net longwave radiative heat losses were

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A. F. G. Jacobs and K. G. McNaughton

of mean temperature and temperaturevariance in micrometeorological studies and, in combination with a sonic anemometer, to measure sensibleheat flux by the eddy correlation technique. The temperature-sensing element of the thermometer is a manganin-constantan thermocouple. Thisthermocouple is made from fine wires, 0.1 mm in diameter, which have been resistance welded and thenrolled out into a thin ribbon about 0.4 mm wide and0.02 mm thick. This ensures a fast response to fluctuations in air

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N. A. Krotkov, I. V. Geogdzhaev, N. Ye Chubarova, S. V. Bushnev, V. U. Khattatov, and T. V. Kondranin

(especially for old 386 and 286 systems) sincewe require a near real-time computation of a modelspectra ( 100-200 spectral points). These requirementsare met by the two-steam radiative transfer schemes(Frederick and Lubin 1988; Bruhl and Crutzen 1989).Computations based on the two-stream approximationare fast and the accuracy of the flux simulation in theUV spectral region is comparable to the instrumentserrors. The UVBase software includes a built-in radiative transfer code based on the delta

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J. C. H. van der Hage, H. van Dop, A. Los, W. Boot, and D. van As

. Homogeneity is assumed in for example, droplet size, liquid water content, and droplet number concentration. In reality these quantities may strongly vary on all scales, even in stratiform cloud types. This variance in cloud properties has a distinct influence on the radiation transfer process ( Los and Duynkerke 2001) . One of the consequences is that the horizontal divergence of radiative fluxes cannot always be neglected. Also, in regions with scattered clouds, a full 3D analysis of radiation transfer

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Xiangzhou Song

1. Introduction Air–sea turbulent heat fluxes (THFs) include latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes in terms of evaporative and conductive processes, respectively. THFs are also the key components that balance the incoming radiative fluxes to obtain the net air–sea heat fluxes. THFs are closely associated with the Reynolds stress. The turbulence in the air–sea boundary layer tends to transfer the momentum, heat, and moisture from a higher layer to a lower layer, or vice versa. When

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