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Peter S. Dailey, Gerhard Zuba, Greta Ljung, Ioana M. Dima, and Jayanta Guin

activity to forecasts of insured damage and loss. Emanuel et al. (2006) provided a statistical deterministic approach to hurricane risk assessment. Jagger et al. (2008) developed models to predict hurricane damage using preseason values of Atlantic SST combined with the NAO and Southern Oscillation index as predictor variables. In addition, various planning, preparation, and mitigation strategies within the emergency management and insurance domains can obtain guidance from such estimates. 2. Data

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Stephen B. Broomell, Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Rebecca E. Morss, and Julie L. Demuth

especially important in the SE because of the factors outlined above—that is, the lack of a single, “traditional” tornado season, tornadoes occurring at night, and tornadoes spawning from multiple types of storm systems. Combined with the rapid-onset nature of tornadoes and their limited predictability ( Markowski and Richardson 2014 ), these factors create further challenges for people’s tornado vigilance, risk assessments, and decision-making, potentially amplifying the risks posed by tornadoes in the

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Mark D. Powell, Eric W. Uhlhorn, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

azimuthal variation in the SWF, FBV mention a difference of 0.04 in the along-the-sonde surface wind factor between the left and right sides of the storm. Their value is smaller than PUK ’s 0.10, which is more consistent with theoretical arguments ( Kepert 2001 ; Kepert and Wang 2001 ) and previous case studies ( Kepert 2006 ; Schwendike and Kepert 2008 ). The reasons for the differences are not entirely clear but likely include that their assessment of asymmetry suffers from the limitations noted

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Basanta Raj Adhikari

hazards in Nepal ( Fig. 1 ). According to the Disaster Risk Reduction Portal, GoN, lightning claimed the highest number fatalities (94) and affected 2884 people with a loss of USD 110,982 in 2019 ( GoN 2020 ). The historical record of lightning activity and its effects is very limited due to the limited communication and recording system in Nepal. Moreover, these fatality events are localized, and therefore the concerned organizations are not paying much attention. However, the death toll and

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Adam H. Sobel, Chia-Ying Lee, Suzana J. Camargo, Kyle T. Mandli, Kerry A. Emanuel, Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay, and M. Mahakur

assessment of the city’s current and future risk. Most of the sources provide little detail or description of the 1882 event. Many of them are simply lists of the worst tropical cyclone disasters in known world history, with the Bombay cyclone of 1882 included among them. One source ( Longshore 2008 ) provides a paragraph; this is the most extensive description of which we are aware. No text of which we are aware listing or describing the Bombay cyclone of 1882 cites any primary historical source. There

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Emmi Yonekura and Timothy M. Hall

an opportunity to reach higher intensities as they travel over the warm tropical ocean given a genesis location closer to the equator and farther eastward. El Niño–year TCs may also reach higher latitudes when they curve northward, before making landfall ( Camargo and Sobel 2005 ; Chan and Liu 2004 ; Camargo et al. 2007c ). The last two effects are important when making a landfall risk assessment in terms of landfall intensity and landfall location. The ENSO–track relationship has been

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, Francisco Meza, and James McPhee

; Datta and Burges 1984 ; Datta and Houck 1984 ). But decision-making should no longer rely completely on the assumption of stationarity ( Milly et al. 2008 , 2015 ), as global change in general, and climate change in particular, are altering the behavior of hydroclimatic variables. A widely used approach to cope with uncertainty in water resources management under stationarity has been probabilistic risk assessment, in which exceedance probabilities are given to different possible outcomes. Risk

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Vasubandhu Misra, Tracy Irani, Lisette Staal, Kevin Morris, Tirusew Asefa, Chris Martinez, and Wendy Graham

population and housing—Population and housing unit counts. U.S. Census Bureau Rep. CPH-2-1, 554 pp., www.census.gov/library/publications/2012/dec/cph-2.html . USGCRP , 2018 : Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States . Vol. II, Fourth National Climate Assessment , D. R. Reidmiller et al., Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 1515 pp., https://doi.org/10.7930/NCA4.2018 . 10.7930/NCA4.2018 U.S. Water Alliance , 2016 : One water roadmap: The sustainable management of life’s most

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Morgan E. Gorris, James E. Neumann, Patrick L. Kinney, Megan Sheahan, and Marcus C. Sarofim

Data , 7 , 1 – 4 , https://doi.org/10.5334/ohd.31 . 10.5334/ohd.31 Hayhoe , K. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Our changing climate. Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment , Vol. II, D. R. Reidmiller et al., Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 72–144 , https://doi.org/10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH2 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH2 Hoffmann , S. , M. B. Batz , and J. G. Morris Jr. , 2012 : Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in

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Xiuzhen Li, Wen Zhou, and Yongqin David Chen

developing El Niño, southern and east-central China is subject to surplus rainfall while northern China is vulnerable to rainfall deficits. A vast region of East Asia stretching from southern China to the east of Japan undergoes wet conditions from the mature winter to the decaying spring–early summer ( Wu et al. 2003 ; Wang et al. 2000 ). Other regions experience nearly the opposite risks of drought and flood, as ENSO affects different parts of China in different ways during its life cycle. This study

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