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Ervin Zsótér, Florian Pappenberger, Paul Smith, Rebecca Elizabeth Emerton, Emanuel Dutra, Fredrik Wetterhall, David Richardson, Konrad Bogner, and Gianpaolo Balsamo

multimodel forecasting and have focused on individual catchments. The potential of multimodel forecasts at the regional or continental scale shown in previous studies provides the motivation for building a global multimodel hydrometeorological forecasting system. In this study we present our experiences in building a multimodel hydrometeorological forecasting system. Global ensemble discharge forecasts with a 10-day horizon are generated using the ECMWF land surface model and a river-routing model. The

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Taikan Oki and Y. C. Sud

realistically simulated. The river runoff generated in the real world must be routed through a natural network of water flow paths, such as creeks, brooks, tributaries, and major river channels. These paths are naturally created by soil erosion and are orographically modulated and temporally carved. A few exceptions represent scenarios either where humans have created new paths for water-use needs or where small passages have naturally broadened to provide cross-basin flows. In this way, these intricate

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Yong Zhu and Reginald E. Newell

m −1 s −1 . It was suggested ( Newell et al. 1992 ) that the water vapor transport in the troposphere is characterized by a filamentary structure, called tropospheric rivers. The moisture flux in a typical tropospheric river is about 1.6 × 10 8 kg s −1 , which is similar to the flux in the Amazon River. The evaluation of Peixoto and Oort (1992) showed that the zonally averaged annual mean meridional water vapor flux poleward across 30°N is about 7 × 10 8 kg s −1 . Thus, four or five

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Kara K. Voss, Amato T. Evan, Kimbery A. Prather, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow corridors of water vapor, usually associated with an extratropical cyclone, that transport moisture in the lower troposphere and typically contain a low-level jet ( Ralph et al. 2018 ; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Waliser and Guan 2017 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Lamjiri et al. 2017 ). They are the primary mechanism for transport of moisture from the tropics to the midlatitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ) and are

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Iain T. MacDonald and Julia C. Mullarney

diameter of ~5000 μ m. Because of the irregular morphologies of flocs (see Fig. 6 ), the definition of floc size is somewhat problematic. Following the works of Manning and Bass (2006) , Graham et al. (2012) , and MacDonald et al. (2013) , the definition of the equivalent spherical diameter was adopted, in which d is given by 4. Field measurements a. Field site Five drifters were tested over multiple days in the heavily sediment-laden Kaipara River on the North Island of New Zealand ( Fig. 3a

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at &I~~Cullum's was closedon the 28th. Through thcse crevasses aid generid overflow of t l ~e bnn1;s of the Missis-sippi the whole valley of the river lins been &vnstnted to such 811 estent that it is esti-mated that the loss will be equivalent to one.sisth of the niinual produce of the regionin question. The highest aid lowest water recordecl at the Signal Service stations aregiven in the accompanying table.HEIGHT OF RIVERN ABOVE LOW WATER MARK,-LIA'I'L.APRIL---................. Ida

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Rebecca S. Duell and Matthew S. Van Den Broeke

intensity, though the literature is relatively quiet on synoptic patterns that result in drylines moving atypically far eastward. This study builds on Schultz et al. (2007) by adding Mississippi River valley (MRV) dryline events and retaining a synoptic-scale focus. A number of dryline climatologies have been published (e.g., Rhea 1966 ; Schaefer 1974 ; Hoch and Markowski 2005 ; Schultz et al. 2007 ), though none of them extend east of the Great Plains. These studies examined April

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Nancy Schmidt, E. K. Lipp, J. B. Rose, and M. E. Luther

variability to local impacts/conditions is particularly relevant. a. Examples of local-scale impacts in Florida Understanding local ENSO patterns, on the scale of counties or drainage basins, has application for Florida’s economy. Florida’s two most important economic sectors are tourism and agriculture, both of which are highly affected by rainfall and river discharge in coastal areas. For example, Hansen et al. (1999) find that during the winter season in Florida, quarterly yields, prices, production

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' almonds, and generallywry Rinootli ;iud eveti i n fbrm, ;L U ~ covered the grouiid to ;I depth of RII inch. Tho hail-storm origi- nated with a smooth sheet of stratiis cloritl, supplunting ;I low-moving scud, and a sudden shift of windf' solltll to Ilortllwest,.THE RIVERS.Tliesc will be seen in tho tnble on the precipitation chart (No. 2), riglit side. It mill boobsorredthere was a11 extriior(1iniiry rise iu tlie Mississippi, :it Cairo, Memphis, and Vicksburg, from the 18thto tlie 30th of' Ikcen1

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noted is that of the lowest stratum of water at the place of observation.R I V E R O B S E R V A T I O N S lIn general these observations show that the rivers draining the eastern slope of theRocky Mountains, were steadily falling during the entire month ; and that those drainingthe western slope of the Appalachian range, experienced fluctuations attending therains of these districts. The table on map No. 3, presents these observations in a con-solidated form.PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF

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