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Annie P. S. Wong and Stephen C. Riser

ice-free months is 32 km, whereas the mean distance between each consecutive pair of interpolated positions during the ice-covered months is only 13 km. Nonetheless, this simple method of estimating position under ice is sufficient for regional studies such as this one. This study used 1964 quality-controlled CTD profiles that were located within the seasonal sea ice zone. Of the 1964 profiles, 1128 (57%) were collected under sea ice. Float salinity measurements were checked for conductivity

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S. Daniel Jacob and Chester J. Koblinsky

of oceanic circulation include the Loop Current and the warm mesoscale eddies that separate from it. The water mass associated with these features has a distinct temperature–salinity ( T – S ) relationship in contrast to the Gulf Common Water (GCW). Earlier studies have documented the importance of realistic initialization of the ocean model for more accurate ocean response simulation due to hurricane passage ( JSMB ; Jacob and Shay 2003 ). However, as the main focus of the present study is to

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Olaf Boebel, Kathy L. Schultz Tokos, and Walter Zenk

AUGUST 1995 BOEBEL ET AL. 923Calculation of Salinity from Neutrally Buoyant RAFOS FloatsOLAF BOEBEL, KATHY L. SCHULTZ TOKOS, AND WALTER ZENKInstitut J~r Meereskunde an der Universitdit Kid, Kid, Germany(Manuscript received 23 February 1994, in final form 26 January 1995)ABSTRACT A method to derive salinity data from RAFOS float temperature and pressure measurements is

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Shari L. Vaughan and Robert L. Molinari

goals: define the mean temperature and salinity properties of the DWBC and estimate timescales and magnitudes of its variability; determine the type of changes in temperature and salinity structure responsible for the variability between pairs of sections. The first goal is addressed in section 3 with mean properties described in 3a and variability in section 3b . Transect differences by depth and density are shown in section 4 . A method developed by Bindoff and McDougall (1994) is used in

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Femke C. Vossepoel, Richard W. Reynolds, and Laury Miller

1. Introduction While dynamic height can be computed from temperature and salinity profiles, it can also be estimated from altimetric sea level observations. Of course, dynamic height and sea level are not equivalent: dynamic height captures all baroclinic processes above a reference level of specific pressure, while sea level also includes the motions below this reference level and barotropic processes. Despite these differences, sea level observations from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) form a good

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Pankajakshan Thadathil, Prasad Thoppil, R. R. Rao, P. M. Muraleedharan, Y. K. Somayajulu, V. V. Gopalakrishna, Raghu Murtugudde, G. V. Reddy, and C. Revichandran

. The halocline in the surface layer occurs when the surface salinity is reduced significantly, compared to the subsurface layer by processes such as excess precipitation over evaporation, river runoff, and redistribution of the low-salinity water by horizontal advection. These low-salinity water fluxes can act in concert, as in the Bay of Bengal ( Thadathil et al. 2007 ), or individually, as, for example, in the western Pacific, where high precipitation is accompanied by westerly wind bursts, the

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Daniel L. Rudnick and Jochen Klinke

temperature [expendable bathythermograph (XBT)], salinity [expendable CTD (XCTD)], and velocity [expendable current profiler (XCP)] have been measured on expendable profilers. The main limitation of expendable profilers is that each sensor is used only once, with effects on the cost of operation and the quality of sensor calibrations (no postdeployment calibration is possible). Depth is determined by a drop-rate equation rather than through the measurement of pressure. Expendable profilers are the current

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Sheldon Bacon, Fred Culkin, Nigel Higgs, and Paul Ridout

1. Introduction Standard seawater (SSW) has now been used for salinity determinations for over a century. It was first introduced to the oceanographic community by Martin Knudsen in 1900, when it was used as a chemical standard in the determination of the chlorinity (and hence salinity) of seawater. SSW, as approved by the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO), is still required today, although it is now used as a reference standard in the measurement of the

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S. Bacon, L. R. Centurioni, and W. J. Gould

aim of this paper is to provide an example of how the error for salinity (derived from float temperature and conductivity measurements) can be estimated. It is difficult to obtain accurate conductivity measurements from floats deployed for long periods. Biofouling on the conductivity cell is regarded as one of the main causes of drift toward lower salinity ( Freeland 1997 ; Davis 1998a). Sudden jumps in salinity of order Δ S = 0.1 have also been reported and these may be difficult to correct

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M-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, A. Proshutinsky, R. Krishfield, and A. Plueddemann

1. Introduction Eddies are known to be a common feature of the Canada Basin halocline having been observed in many past studies ( Newton et al. 1974 ; Hunkins 1974 ; Manley and Hunkins 1985 ; D’Asaro 1988a ; Padman et al. 1990 ; Plueddemann et al. 1998 ; Münchow et al. 2000 ; Muench et al. 2000 ; Krishfield et al. 2002 ; Pickart et al. 2005 ). The halocline layer lies above about 250-m depth in the Canada Basin and is characterized by a strong increase in salinity with depth and

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