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Yolande L. Serra and Michael J. McPhaden

Laboratory (PMEL) for the TAO–TRITON and PIRATA arrays. Standard ATLAS measurements have been collected since 1984 and include 3-m air temperature and relative humidity, 4-m wind speed and direction, and ocean temperatures at 11 depths from 1 to 500 m. New next-generation ATLAS buoys, deployed at selected locations since 1997, can additionally measure barometric pressure, shortwave and longwave radiation, precipitation, and salinity. The next-generation ATLAS buoys measure precipitation using R. M. Young

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Paul A. Frederickson, Kenneth L. Davidson, Carl R. Zeisse, and Charles S. Bendall

model, is a smooth function with no first-order discontinuities. The specific humidity at the surface q o is determined by assuming the sea surface is saturated, therefore, q o = 0.98 q sat ( T o ), where q sat ( T o ) is the saturation specific humidity at the sea surface temperature T o , and the factor 0.98 accounts for salinity effects. The wind speed at the ocean surface is assumed to be zero ( U o = 0). We have adopted the “free-convective” parameterization described by Fairall et al

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A. G. Griesser and C. M. Spillman

://www.cawcr.gov.au/researchletters/CAWCR_Research_Letters_8.pdf .] Hatcher , B. G. , 1988 : Coral reef primary productivity: A beggar’s banquet . Trends Ecol. Evol. , 3 , 106 – 111 , doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(88)90117-6 . Hoegh-Guldberg , O. , 1999 : Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs . Mar. Freshwater Res. , 50 , 839 – 866 , doi: 10.1071/MF99078 . Hoegh-Guldberg , O. , and G. J. Smith , 1989 : The effect of sudden changes in temperature, light and salinity on the population density and export of

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J. R. Wang, W. C. Boncyk, L. R. Dod, and A. K. Sharma

in Figs. 12, 13, and 14may be subject to an error of approximately _+0.02g cm-2. Second, the dielectric relaxation model forwater used by Chang and Wilheit (1979) is derivedfrom the measured data in the frequencies less than60 GHz. As a consequence, the calculated R values forthe ocean surface near 183 GHz shown in Figs. 12 and13 may be subject to error. A better understanding ofthe dielectric property of saline water at high microwavefrequencies is needed to determine the reason for theobserved

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J. V. Ratnam, Takeshi Doi, Willem A. Landman, and Swadhin K. Behera

is conducted every first day of each month using subsurface ocean temperature and salinity observation. An ensemble of 12 members of SINTEX-F2 forecasts were used to drive the WRF Model to generate an ensemble of 12-member WRF downscaled forecasts for the years 1998–2015 (18 years) covering a 6-month period from August to January. The WRF Model, version 3.8.1, was used for dynamically downscaling the SINTEX-F2 seasonal forecasts. The WRF Model was configured with two-way interacting domains at

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Dale T. Andersen, Christopher P. McKay, and Victor Lagun

Land, Antarctica . J. Glaciol. , 56 , 891 – 902 , doi: 10.3189/002214310794457272 . Burton , H. R. , 1981 : Chemistry, physics and evolution of Antarctic saline lakes . Hydrobiologia , 81–82 , 339 – 362 , doi: 10.1007/BF00048724 . Clow , G. D. , C. P. McKay , G. M. Simmons Jr. , and R. A. Wharton Jr. , 1988 : Climatological observations and predicted sublimation rates at Lake Hoare, Antarctica . J. Climate , 1 , 715 – 728 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1988)001<0715:COAPSR>2

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Thiago Luiz do Vale Silva, Doris Veleda, Moacyr Araujo, and Pedro Tyaquiçã

the domain of this study. For the atmospheric modeling, two different databases were used: the boundary data were the NCEP Final (FNL) operational global analysis dataset ( NCEP 2000 ) with a resolution of 1° × 1° and the ERA-Interim global atmospheric dataset with resolution of 0.733 km (N128) ( http://www.ecmwf.int ), and data were collected in both datasets every 6 h. When the coupled model between the ROMS model and the WRF Model was used, the temperature, salinity, and current variables for

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Michael J. Glotter, Elisabeth J. Moyer, Alex C. Ruane, and Joshua W. Elliott

shown to improve representations over previous reanalyses ( Higgins et al. 2010 ; Wang et al. 2011 ). CFSR simulates the climate system using a coupled atmosphere–ocean model with a sea ice component at a high T382 global resolution [~38 km, or ~(0.313° × 0.313°)]. When run in reanalysis mode, CFSR is constrained by subdaily measurements related to atmospheric motion, satellite radiances, oceanic temperature and salinity profiles, and sea ice concentration, made from weather stations, satellites

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Sandra E. Yuter and Wendy S. Parker

source of error in ship measurements of rainfall and generally decreases with increasing height of the gauge above the water line ( Roll 1958 ). Quantification of the error requires measurement of the portion of sea spray in the total rain catch, which can be difficult in practice. Skaar (1955) used salinity measurements of the water collected by his gauges to estimate the contribution of sea spray to total rain catch. Roll (1958) criticized this method on the grounds that it will not distinguish

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Jerry D. Hill, Norton D. Strommen, Clarence M. Sakamoto, and Sharon K. Leduc

2 - 1 *Ellis, KS -I1 -8 I -11 West Polk, MT -7 -2 *Saline, KS 4 -3 6 11 Ft. Sask, Alta. -1 -7 *Morton, KS 2 1 5 8 Lethbridge, Alta. 12 10 *Shelby

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