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Olivier Andry, Richard Bintanja, and Wilco Hazeleger

1. Introduction Many studies, based on analyses of both models and observation, have shown that the warming in the Arctic region occurs 2 to 3 times faster than the global mean ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Serreze and Francis 2006 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ), a phenomenon that is commonly referred to as Arctic amplification (AA). This warming is accompanied by a strong decrease in summer Arctic sea ice extent and thickness, the former reaching historic low values in recent years ( Comiso et al

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Sahil Agarwal and John S. Wettlaufer

1. Introduction Polar amplification posits that if the average global temperature increases, the relative change in the polar regions will be larger, and hence the observed decline of the Arctic sea ice cover during the satellite era has been a key focus of research ( Kwok and Untersteiner 2011 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is an indicator of how atmospheric circulation can be related to observed changes in the sea ice cover. However, because it captures only

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Axel J. Schweiger, Kevin R. Wood, and Jinlun Zhang

1. Introduction Changes in Arctic sea ice are an important fingerprint of natural and anthropogenic climate change. The dominant signal in sea ice variability over the satellite era (1979–present) is the reduction of sea ice extent, area, and thickness. While the first two characteristics are well measured from satellites, a basinwide record of sea ice thickness and volume is not available from direct measurements over the same period. Instead, this record is either pieced together from a

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Haibo Shen, Shengping He, and Huijun Wang

et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2018 ). Wang (2002) also noted that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), which dominants the summer rainfall variability over eastern China, is unstable. The unstable EASM–ENSO relationship implies that there are some other potential factors impacting the variability of summer rainfall over eastern China. Previous studies revealed the influence of Arctic sea ice on atmospheric teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere during

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Jiping Liu, Zhanhai Zhang, Radley M. Horton, Chunyi Wang, and Xiaobo Ren

1. Introduction Sea ice is a critical component of the climate system, influenced by both the atmosphere and the ocean. Many studies have found that fluctuations in sea ice primarily result from a combination of the variations in wind stress (dynamic) and the perturbations in the surface energy balance induced by the temperature anomalies (thermodynamic) (e.g., Agnew 1993 ; Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Deser et al. 2000 ). In addition to a large seasonal cycle, sea ice in the North Pacific

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Hui Li, Alexey Fedorov, and Wei Liu

past [ Broecker et al. 1990 ; Dansgaard et al. 1993 ; see Lynch-Stieglitz (2016) for a review]. Recent observations of AMOC strength at 26.5°N by the RAPID arrays ( Smeed et al. 2018 ) suggest a downward trend, but the nature of this AMOC slowdown remains unclear (e.g., Booth et al. 2012 ; Caesar et al. 2018 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2015 ). Meanwhile, Arctic sea ice has been declining over the past few decades. The summer minimum sea ice extent shows a decreasing trend of 13.4% per decade from 1979

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

1. Introduction For the climate system, one of the important features of sea ice is the heat insulation effect between atmosphere and ocean. The heat insulation effect is greatly reduced in the case of thin ice. Thus, in the sea ice zone, the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean depends strongly on both ice concentration and thickness. For example, in a coastal polynya, which is a typical thin-ice area formed by divergent ice drift due to prevailing winds or oceanic currents ( Morales Maqueda

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Mitchell Bushuk, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice is a sensitive component of the climate system, with dynamics and variability that are strongly coupled to the atmosphere and ocean. This sensitivity is evident in the recent precipitous decline in September sea ice extent, of roughly 9% per decade since 1979 ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ). Trends in sea ice extent are negative for all months of the year and all Arctic regions except for the Bering Sea ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ). In addition

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Ian Eisenman, Tapio Schneider, David S. Battisti, and Cecilia M. Bitz

1. Introduction The extent of sea ice covering the ocean in the high northern latitudes varies between about 7 Mm 2 at summer minimum and 16 Mm 2 at winter maximum in today’s climate (with 1 Mm 2 = 10 6 km 2 ). During recent decades, Arctic sea ice has been rapidly retreating. The year-to-year retreat of sea ice extent has been considerably more rapid at summer minimum than at winter maximum (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ), with an associated increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle

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B. L. Mueller, N. P. Gillett, A. H. Monahan, and F. W. Zwiers

1. Introduction One of the best quantified aspects of climate change in the Arctic is the change in the spatial extent of the sea ice as measured by passive-microwave sensors on board satellite systems since 1978. Satellite observations of the Arctic show a negative trend in sea ice concentration (SIC) in all seasons and all Arctic subregions except the Bering Sea for the 1979–2012 period ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stroeve et al. 2012b ). The minimum sea ice extent (SIE

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