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Axel J. Schweiger, Kevin R. Wood, and Jinlun Zhang

1. Introduction Changes in Arctic sea ice are an important fingerprint of natural and anthropogenic climate change. The dominant signal in sea ice variability over the satellite era (1979–present) is the reduction of sea ice extent, area, and thickness. While the first two characteristics are well measured from satellites, a basinwide record of sea ice thickness and volume is not available from direct measurements over the same period. Instead, this record is either pieced together from a

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Haibo Shen, Shengping He, and Huijun Wang

et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2018 ). Wang (2002) also noted that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), which dominants the summer rainfall variability over eastern China, is unstable. The unstable EASM–ENSO relationship implies that there are some other potential factors impacting the variability of summer rainfall over eastern China. Previous studies revealed the influence of Arctic sea ice on atmospheric teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere during

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Jiping Liu, Zhanhai Zhang, Radley M. Horton, Chunyi Wang, and Xiaobo Ren

1. Introduction Sea ice is a critical component of the climate system, influenced by both the atmosphere and the ocean. Many studies have found that fluctuations in sea ice primarily result from a combination of the variations in wind stress (dynamic) and the perturbations in the surface energy balance induced by the temperature anomalies (thermodynamic) (e.g., Agnew 1993 ; Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Deser et al. 2000 ). In addition to a large seasonal cycle, sea ice in the North Pacific

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

1. Introduction For the climate system, one of the important features of sea ice is the heat insulation effect between atmosphere and ocean. The heat insulation effect is greatly reduced in the case of thin ice. Thus, in the sea ice zone, the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean depends strongly on both ice concentration and thickness. For example, in a coastal polynya, which is a typical thin-ice area formed by divergent ice drift due to prevailing winds or oceanic currents ( Morales Maqueda

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Mitchell Bushuk, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice is a sensitive component of the climate system, with dynamics and variability that are strongly coupled to the atmosphere and ocean. This sensitivity is evident in the recent precipitous decline in September sea ice extent, of roughly 9% per decade since 1979 ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ). Trends in sea ice extent are negative for all months of the year and all Arctic regions except for the Bering Sea ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ). In addition

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Ian Eisenman, Tapio Schneider, David S. Battisti, and Cecilia M. Bitz

1. Introduction The extent of sea ice covering the ocean in the high northern latitudes varies between about 7 Mm 2 at summer minimum and 16 Mm 2 at winter maximum in today’s climate (with 1 Mm 2 = 10 6 km 2 ). During recent decades, Arctic sea ice has been rapidly retreating. The year-to-year retreat of sea ice extent has been considerably more rapid at summer minimum than at winter maximum (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ), with an associated increase in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle

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B. L. Mueller, N. P. Gillett, A. H. Monahan, and F. W. Zwiers

1. Introduction One of the best quantified aspects of climate change in the Arctic is the change in the spatial extent of the sea ice as measured by passive-microwave sensors on board satellite systems since 1978. Satellite observations of the Arctic show a negative trend in sea ice concentration (SIC) in all seasons and all Arctic subregions except the Bering Sea for the 1979–2012 period ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stroeve et al. 2012b ). The minimum sea ice extent (SIE

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Robert M. Graham, Lana Cohen, Nicole Ritzhaupt, Benjamin Segger, Rune G. Graversen, Annette Rinke, Von P. Walden, Mats A. Granskog, and Stephen R. Hudson

1. Introduction Temperatures in the Arctic are rising twice as fast as the Northern Hemisphere as a whole, and Arctic sea ice is retreating in all seasons ( Serreze and Francis 2006 ; Bekryaev et al. 2010 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Boisvert and Stroeve 2015 ; Stroeve and Notz 2018 ). Many studies documenting and attributing these ongoing changes in the Arctic rely heavily on atmospheric reanalyses ( Screen and Simmonds 2012 ; Screen et al. 2013 ; Mortin et al. 2016 ; Overland and Wang 2016

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Brian E. J. Rose, David Ferreira, and John Marshall

, physically self-consistent look at the coupled atmosphere–ocean–ice processes involved in the growth and retreat of extensive sea ice caps, and an opportunity to diagnose causality in concomitant shifts in ocean circulation and ice cover. They may therefore provide insight into mechanisms for observed large and abrupt climate shifts of the past and guidance in the interpretation of proxy data. One inspiration for our experiments is millennial-scale climate variability of the last ice age, particularly

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Pawel Schlichtholz

1. Introduction Through the past few decades, the Arctic Ocean sea ice has undergone spectacular changes ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ; Comiso and Hall 2014 ; Stroeve et al. 2014 ). Climate warming has led to a prolonged and more intense melt season, resulting in diminished sea ice cover at the end of summer. In September, the linear trend in Arctic sea ice extent estimated from satellite passive microwave data over the period 1979–2017 amounts to −13% decade −1 ( Serreze

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