Search Results

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 6,211 items for :

  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Andrew Rhines and Peter J. Huybers

), in order to be consistent with reconstructed glacier equilibrium line altitudes. Denton et al. (2005) also used similar methods to show that glacial winters in Europe were colder than those of the Holocene by a far greater margin than summers, indicating that more extreme seasonality was not limited to Greenland. Sea ice cover is a well-recognized influence on the seasonal cycle of accumulation in Greenland ( Steig et al. 1994 ; Krinner et al. 1997 ; Werner et al. 2000 , 2001 ; Krinner and

Full access
Edward W. Doddridge, John Marshall, Hajoon Song, Jean-Michel Campin, and Maxwell Kelley

1. Introduction Each year approximately 15 million km 2 of sea ice forms and subsequently melts in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean ( Fetterer et al. 2017 ). The buoyancy fluxes associated with this seasonal ice cycle play an important role in the meridional overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean ( Abernathey et al. 2016 ; Haumann et al. 2016 ). This circulation connects the surface with the abyss and is a conduit for exchange between reservoirs of heat, carbon, and

Restricted access
Olivier Andry, Richard Bintanja, and Wilco Hazeleger

1. Introduction Many studies, based on analyses of both models and observation, have shown that the warming in the Arctic region occurs 2 to 3 times faster than the global mean ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Serreze and Francis 2006 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ), a phenomenon that is commonly referred to as Arctic amplification (AA). This warming is accompanied by a strong decrease in summer Arctic sea ice extent and thickness, the former reaching historic low values in recent years ( Comiso et al

Full access
Sahil Agarwal and John S. Wettlaufer

1. Introduction Polar amplification posits that if the average global temperature increases, the relative change in the polar regions will be larger, and hence the observed decline of the Arctic sea ice cover during the satellite era has been a key focus of research ( Kwok and Untersteiner 2011 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is an indicator of how atmospheric circulation can be related to observed changes in the sea ice cover. However, because it captures only

Full access
Axel J. Schweiger, Kevin R. Wood, and Jinlun Zhang

1. Introduction Changes in Arctic sea ice are an important fingerprint of natural and anthropogenic climate change. The dominant signal in sea ice variability over the satellite era (1979–present) is the reduction of sea ice extent, area, and thickness. While the first two characteristics are well measured from satellites, a basinwide record of sea ice thickness and volume is not available from direct measurements over the same period. Instead, this record is either pieced together from a

Open access
Haibo Shen, Shengping He, and Huijun Wang

et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2018 ). Wang (2002) also noted that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), which dominants the summer rainfall variability over eastern China, is unstable. The unstable EASM–ENSO relationship implies that there are some other potential factors impacting the variability of summer rainfall over eastern China. Previous studies revealed the influence of Arctic sea ice on atmospheric teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere during

Full access
Jiping Liu, Zhanhai Zhang, Radley M. Horton, Chunyi Wang, and Xiaobo Ren

1. Introduction Sea ice is a critical component of the climate system, influenced by both the atmosphere and the ocean. Many studies have found that fluctuations in sea ice primarily result from a combination of the variations in wind stress (dynamic) and the perturbations in the surface energy balance induced by the temperature anomalies (thermodynamic) (e.g., Agnew 1993 ; Fang and Wallace 1994 ; Deser et al. 2000 ). In addition to a large seasonal cycle, sea ice in the North Pacific

Full access
Hui Li, Alexey Fedorov, and Wei Liu

past [ Broecker et al. 1990 ; Dansgaard et al. 1993 ; see Lynch-Stieglitz (2016) for a review]. Recent observations of AMOC strength at 26.5°N by the RAPID arrays ( Smeed et al. 2018 ) suggest a downward trend, but the nature of this AMOC slowdown remains unclear (e.g., Booth et al. 2012 ; Caesar et al. 2018 ; Rahmstorf et al. 2015 ). Meanwhile, Arctic sea ice has been declining over the past few decades. The summer minimum sea ice extent shows a decreasing trend of 13.4% per decade from 1979

Restricted access
Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

1. Introduction For the climate system, one of the important features of sea ice is the heat insulation effect between atmosphere and ocean. The heat insulation effect is greatly reduced in the case of thin ice. Thus, in the sea ice zone, the heat flux between atmosphere and ocean depends strongly on both ice concentration and thickness. For example, in a coastal polynya, which is a typical thin-ice area formed by divergent ice drift due to prevailing winds or oceanic currents ( Morales Maqueda

Full access
Mitchell Bushuk, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice is a sensitive component of the climate system, with dynamics and variability that are strongly coupled to the atmosphere and ocean. This sensitivity is evident in the recent precipitous decline in September sea ice extent, of roughly 9% per decade since 1979 ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ). Trends in sea ice extent are negative for all months of the year and all Arctic regions except for the Bering Sea ( Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ). In addition

Full access