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N. Voisin, M. Kintner-Meyer, D. Wu, R. Skaggs, T. Fu, T. Zhou, T. Nguyen, and I. Kraucunas

Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Trenberth 1997 ) has a bimodal pattern in the PNW and California and a moving boundary in Northern California ( Dettinger et al. 1998 ). This bimodal climate pattern has already shown potential to require higher north–south power transfers during La Niña events ( Voisin et al. 2006 ). Another notable regional variability pattern is the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), which has been shown to modulate ENSO effects on water availability and

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Cristina L. Archer, Brian A. Colle, Luca Delle Monache, Michael J. Dvorak, Julie Lundquist, Bruce H. Bailey, Philippe Beaucage, Matthew J. Churchfield, Anna C. Fitch, Branko Kosovic, Sang Lee, Patrick J. Moriarty, Hugo Simao, Richard J. A. M. Stevens, Dana Veron, and John Zack

, these maps provide estimates of wind speed and direction, diurnal and seasonal patterns, wind shear, and air density at horizontal grid scales of approximately 1–5 km. This information, although essentially unverified due to the lack of hub-height measurements described in Research Need #1, has enabled numerous project siting studies, wind farm layout and energy production simulations, and estimates of development potential as a factor of water depth, distance from shore, wind resource, and other

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Themistoklis Chronis and William J. Koshak

States (CONUS) up to ∼38°N, this work represents an important continuation of, and a unique contribution to, the National Climate Assessment (NCA) lightning–climate study given in Koshak et al. (2015) . This paper is organized as follows: The next section discusses the data and methodologies employed. Next, we provide the diurnal variation results and also examine additional possible influences or biases (e.g., geographical and seasonal effects, instrument detection biases, sample size biases). We

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Christopher J. Cox, Robert S. Stone, David C. Douglas, Diane M. Stanitski, George J. Divoky, Geoff S. Dutton, Colm Sweeney, J. Craig George, and David U. Longenecker

. 2006 ), and vegetation (e.g., Bhatt et al. 2013 ) vary annually in response to seasonal warming and cooling of the surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. The timing of snow disappearance each spring influences the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface during May and June, and the associated variations in the net surface energy budget propagating downward through the subsurface affecting soil temperatures (e.g., Romanovsky et al. 2002 ; Westermann et al. 2009 ) and upward through the

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Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Long Zhao, Yingying Chen, Wenjun Tang, Menglei Han, Lazhu, Zhuoqi Chen, Ning Lv, Baohong Ding, Hui Wu, and Changgui Lin

. These large biases were not reported in previous studies, showing great challenges to improve SM products in this semiarid area. In addition, the soil freeze–thaw (F/T) is a typical process on the TP. It imposes effects on soil hydrology and vegetation growth as well as the bedrock stability of the plateau highway and railway. Many efforts have made to estimate the F/T state through remote sensing (e.g., Zhang and Armstrong 2001 ; Jin et al. 2009 ; Zhao et al. 2011 ; Li et al. 2012 ) and land

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Markku Rummukainen, Burkhardt Rockel, Lars Bärring, Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen, and Marcus Reckermann

precipitation, local wind patterns, and urban canopy effects. Very high-resolution RCM results have provided new insights: for example, (i) soil moisture–precipitation feedback may show opposite signs when convective precipitation is explicitly simulated rather than parameterized, (ii) extreme precipitation may show different changes compared to simulations with parameterized convection and there may be changes in the diurnal timing of rainfall (e.g., increased precipitation only at certain times of the day

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Janet Barlow, Martin Best, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Peter Clark, Sue Grimmond, Humphrey Lean, Andreas Christen, Stefan Emeis, Martial Haeffelin, Ian N. Harman, Aude Lemonsu, Alberto Martilli, Eric Pardyjak, Mathias W Rotach, Susan Ballard, Ian Boutle, Andy Brown, Xiaoming Cai, Matteo Carpentieri, Omduth Coceal, Ben Crawford, Silvana Di Sabatino, Junxia Dou, Daniel R. Drew, John M. Edwards, Joachim Fallmann, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Jemma Gornall, Tobias Gronemeier, Christos H. Halios, Denise Hertwig, Kohin Hirano, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Zhiwen Luo, Gerald Mills, Makoto Nakayoshi, Kathy Pain, K. Heinke Schlünzen, Stefan Smith, Lionel Soulhac, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, Ting Sun, Natalie E Theeuwes, David Thomson, James A. Voogt, Helen C. Ward, Zheng-Tong Xie, and Jian Zhong

Reading, Reading, United Kingdom With the majority of people experiencing weather in urban areas, it is critical to understand cities, weather, and climate impacts. Increasing climate extremes (e.g., heat stress, air pollution, flash flooding) combined with the density of people means it is essential that city infrastructure and operations can withstand high-impact weather. Thus, there is a huge opportunity to mitigate climate change effects and provide healthier environments through design and

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Kelly Helm Smith, Mark Svoboda, Michael Hayes, Henry Reges, Nolan Doesken, Kirsten Lackstrom, Kirstin Dow, and Amanda Brennan

, founder of the NDMC, identified the need for better assessments of drought impacts—including a consistent methodology for quantifying economic losses due to drought—and better understanding of drought's indirect social and environmental effects. Such information helps people allocate water resources, provide relief, and understand effects on ecosystems, communities, and various industries. This information enables planners to better target actions to reduce vulnerability to drought. It can also help

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Steven C. Sherwood, Sandrine Bony, Olivier Boucher, Chris Bretherton, Piers M. Forster, Jonathan M. Gregory, and Bjorn Stevens

ice cover) that depend on and alter the planetary energy budget. The new equilibrium encompasses all of their effects as well: The ratio is called the “climate sensitivity parameter” (the “equilibrium climate sensitivity” being usually defined as for a forcing equivalent to a doubling of CO 2 ). The term is the “Planck response,” or the change that would undergo if the climate system behaved as a blackbody with no feedbacks. The blackbody system is stable to radiative perturbations

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Sara H. Knox, Robert B. Jackson, Benjamin Poulter, Gavin McNicol, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Zhen Zhang, Gustaf Hugelius, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Marielle Saunois, Dario Papale, Housen Chu, Trevor F. Keenan, Dennis Baldocchi, Margaret S. Torn, Ivan Mammarella, Carlo Trotta, Mika Aurela, Gil Bohrer, David I. Campbell, Alessandro Cescatti, Samuel Chamberlain, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Eugenie Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Daniele Gasbarra, Ignacio Goded, Mathias Goeckede, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Takashi Hirano, David Y. Hollinger, Hiroki Iwata, Minseok Kang, Janina Klatt, Ken W. Krauss, Lars Kutzbach, Annalea Lohila, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Asko Noormets, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Hans Peter Schmid, Narasinha Shurpali, Oliver Sonnentag, Angela C. I. Tang, Masahito Ueyama, Rodrigo Vargas, Timo Vesala, Eric J. Ward, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Donatella Zona

, G. , C. S. Sturtevant , S. H. Knox , I. Dronova , D. D. Baldocchi , and W. L. Silver , 2017 : Effects of seasonality, transport pathway, and spatial structure on greenhouse gas fluxes in a restored wetland . Global Change Biol . , 23 , 2768 – 2782 , . 10.1111/gcb.13580 McNorton , J. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Role of regional wetland emissions in atmospheric methane variability . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 43 , 11 433 – 11 444 , https

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