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Melanie M. Colavito, Sarah F. Trainor, Nathan P. Kettle, and Alison York

societal condition is improved due to a participant’s action” ( Singletary et al. 2015 ). The logic model framework used here includes historical context, inputs and assets, outputs and activities, and outcomes. AFSC’s impacts were not analyzed, as they are longer-term and more difficult to measure ( Ferguson et al. 2016 ). Multiple methods anchored in modified grounded theory—a research approach that begins inductively with questions to generate data and subsequent themes and patterns—were used

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Rachael N. Cross and Daphne S. LaDue

(NWS) to local officials and the public on a city or county scale. City and county EMs are acutely aware of weather impacts, and their career longevity is closely tied to their preparation and response decisions ( Donner 2008 ). Several studies have examined EMs’ understanding of or interest in uncertainty in weather forecasts for several types of weather in several regions of the United States and Europe. For example, EMs were less prepared when they were unaware of forecast uncertainty and the

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Elizabeth C. McNie

climate service . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 103 , 19 616 – 19 623 . National Climate Assessment , 2011 : Climate change impacts and responses: Societal indicators for the National Climate Assessment. NCA Rep. Series, Vol. 5C, 122 pp. Nowotny, H. , Scott P. , and Gibbons M. , 2003 : Mode 2 revisited: The new production of knowledge . Minerva , 41 , 179 – 194 . NRC , 1999 : Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade. National Academies Press, 192 pp . NRC

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Stephen M. Strader

atmosphere for severe weather but also the numerous socioeconomic factors that affect the public’s ability to receive and respond to warning messages, as well as cope with the impacts ( Changnon et al. 2000 ; Pielke and Mills 2005 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Ashley et al. 2014 ; Visser et al. 2014 ; Strader et al. 2017 ). These societal factors also influence the evolution of population and development patterns and thus the number of people exposed to tornadoes and severe hailstorms. This research aims to

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Castle A. Williams and Gina M. Eosco

relevant research and propose best practices. Pulling from various committees (e.g., NWA Committee on Societal Impacts), boards (e.g., AMS Board on Enterprise Communication), organizations (e.g., Natural Hazards Center), and outside experts (e.g., risk communication experts, linguists, graphic designers), the weather enterprise could form a diverse and representative ad hoc committee to explore message consistency from an enterprise-wide perspective. This strategy is adapted from the field of warning

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J. Nalau, S. Becken, S. Noakes, and B. Mackey

from anthropogenic emissions is leading to rising temperatures, shifting rainfall patterns, and an increase in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme weather events, along with secondary impacts, such as sea level rise and ocean acidification ( IPCC 2013 ). Climate change impacts tourism in four main ways: “direct impacts of a changed climate; indirect impacts of environmental change; mitigation policy and tourist mobility; and societal change related to reduced economic growth, consumer

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Tanja Wolf, Glenn McGregor, and Antonis Analitis

climate, normalized vegetation difference index, and U.S. Census data to construct maps of heat vulnerability ( Chow et al. 2012 ). Some studies approach the heat vulnerability problem in reverse. For example Hondula et al. (2012) examine linkages between spatial patterns of heat impacts on health and sociodemographic characteristics. Specifically, they examined if the mortality response for 48 ZIP code areas around Philadelphia were associated with higher risk of death during high heat stress

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Scott F. Blair and Jared W. Leighton

States . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 567 – 582 , doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3062.1 . Demuth, J. L. , Morrow B. H. , and Lazo J. K. , 2009 : Weather forecast uncertainty information: An exploratory study with broadcast meteorologists . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 90 , 1614 – 1618 , doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2787.1 . Dix, D. , and Fieux J. , 2011 : Atlanta Integrated Warning Team workshop: A WAS*IS success. Weather and Society Watch, Vol. 5, No. 4, NCAR Societal Impacts Program, Boulder, CO

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Julie L. Demuth, Jeffrey K. Lazo, and Rebecca E. Morss

Douglas Hilderbrand, Jason Knievel, and five anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on the manuscript. This work is supported by NCAR’s Collaborative Program on the Societal Impacts and Economic Benefits of Weather Information (SIP), which is funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through the U.S. Weather Research Program. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The views and opinions in this paper are those of the

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Julie L. Demuth

societal impacts across Europe . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 147 , 3901 – 3916 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0204.1 Rasmussen , K. L. , A. F. Prein , R. M. Rasmussen , K. Ikeda , and C. Liu , 2020 : Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States . Climate Dyn. , 55 , 383 – 408 , . 10.1007/s00382-017-4000-7 Renn , O

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