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Vidhi Bharti, Eric Schulz, Christopher W. Fairall, Byron W. Blomquist, Yi Huang, Alain Protat, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton

1. Introduction The poor knowledge of surface heat fluxes over the Southern Ocean contributes to large uncertainty in the global surface heat and ocean heat budget closure ( Josey et al. 1999 ; Fasullo and Trenberth 2008 ). The current goal set by the global climate community is to achieve global surface net flux accuracy of ±10 W m −2 at a monthly resolution ( Fairall et al. 2010 ), which implies determining fluxes accurately to within 5 W m −2 at 3–6-h time resolution and 1° spatial

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A. J. S. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and S. R. Rintoul

1. Introduction Observations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Southern Ocean are in general extremely sparse in time and space. While the Argo program has dramatically improved the in situ coverage of the Southern Ocean, this dataset only exists from 2002 onward, and the spatial resolution at any instant remains relatively low. This low resolution at depth restricts the observational analysis of subsurface ACC variability to hydrographic sections, and basin- or circumpolar

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Shannon Mason, Jennifer K. Fletcher, John M. Haynes, Charmaine Franklin, Alain Protat, and Christian Jakob

to the model—and hence the errors we aim to explore. We apply the hybrid cloud regime methodology to a significant cloud evaluation problem for many state-of-the-art models: the shortwave (SW) radiation biases in the high-latitude Southern Ocean (50°–65°S) during the austral summer [December–February (DJF)]. An excess of absorbed SW radiation in this region—associated with a deficit of cloud or cloud reflectivity—was identified in CMIP3 ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2010 ), and persists in the CMIP5

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L. Shogo Urakawa and Hiroyasu Hasumi

around Antarctica ( Schmitz 1995 ). On the other hand, the Indian and Pacific Oceans are characterized by upwelling of such deep-water masses. The Southern Ocean connects these formation and upwelling areas of the deep water and plays an important role in the global THC. The meridional overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean is considered to be composed of northward flows in the surface and bottom layers and a southward flow in the deep layer (e.g., Speer et al. 2000 ; Ganachaud and Wunsch

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Shannon Mason, Christian Jakob, Alain Protat, and Julien Delanoë

1. Introduction Clouds regulate the atmospheric radiation budget, and are a key mechanism in the hydrological cycle and global atmospheric circulation. The representation of cloud processes, properties and radiative effects—now and in a changing climate—are therefore both a priority and an ongoing challenge for model development. One of the most significant cloud errors in global climate models is the poor representation of cloudiness over the high-latitude Southern Ocean (50°–65°S) and a

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David H. Bromwich, Julien P. Nicolas, and Andrew J. Monaghan

; Sodemann and Stohl 2009 ). Thus, variations in Antarctic SMB are intimately linked to changes in Southern Ocean precipitation, both of which are examined in this paper. In addition, future climate simulations show that precipitation changes over the Antarctic are paired with those in the adjacent sector of the Southern Ocean (e.g., Christensen et al. 2007 ). Global reanalyses potentially provide valuable resources for investigating climate change during recent decades. These datasets are produced with

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Stephanie M. Downes, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction The ocean takes up atmospheric CO 2 in the ventilation zones at mid and high latitudes, where the water masses are formed, and releases it in the equatorial upwelling regions ( Takahashi et al. 2002 ). Observations and models estimate that about 40% of the global anthropogenic CO 2 uptake by the global ocean occurs south of 30°S (e.g., Orr et al. 2001 ; Sabine et al. 2004 ). However, less than 18% of the anthropogenic Southern Ocean CO 2 uptake is via high-latitude water

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Feng Li, Yury V. Vikhliaev, Paul A. Newman, Steven Pawson, Judith Perlwitz, Darryn W. Waugh, and Anne R. Douglass

ozone hole is also an important driver of Southern Ocean change, including the spinup of the SH subtropical gyres ( Cai 2006 ), the strengthening of the meridional overturning circulation ( Sigmond and Fyfe 2010 ; Sigmond et al. 2011 ; Solomon et al. 2015 ), and the warming of the Southern Ocean ( Sigmond and Fyfe 2010 ; Solomon et al. 2015 ). Because the ozone hole plays a key role in driving recent SH climate change, it is important to realistically represent the stratospheric ozone climate

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Christopher C. Chapman and Andrew McC. Hogg

1. Introduction a. Background High-resolution satellite altimetry, long time hydrographic sections, and eddy-resolving numerical models have revealed that the Southern Ocean flow field is dominated by thin, strong, and quasi-zonal jetlike features. These jets show significant time variability: strengthening and weakening, splitting and merging, and shifting meridional position. However, the position of these jets is largely set by large, sub-surface topographic features ( Rintoul et al. 2001

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Christopher S. Bretherton, Roger Marchand, Alain Protat, Paul J. DeMott, Simon P. Alexander, Greg C. Roberts, Cynthia H. Twohy, Darin Toohey, Steve Siems, Yi Huang, Robert Wood, Robert M. Rauber, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Jorgen Jensen, Jeffrey L. Stith, Jay Mace, Junshik Um, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Andrew Gettelman, Kevin J. Sanchez, Christina S. McCluskey, Lynn M. Russell, Isabel L. McCoy, Rachel L. Atlas, Charles G. Bardeen, Kathryn A. Moore, Thomas C. J. Hill, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Zoran Ristovski, Luke Cravigan, Robyn Schofield, Chris Fairall, Marc D. Mallet, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Bryan Rainwater, John D’Alessandro, Yang Wang, Wei Wu, Georges Saliba, Ezra J. T. Levin, Saisai Ding, Francisco Lang, Son C. H. Truong, Cory Wolff, Julie Haggerty, Mike J. Harvey, Andrew R. Klekociuk, and Adrian McDonald

The Southern Ocean (SO) surrounding Antarctica and consisting of parts of the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, is one of the cloudiest places on Earth. The fractional cover of low clouds (below 3-km altitude) prevalent in the warm and cold sectors of frequent extratropical cyclones reaches nearly 80% year-round ( Mace et al. 2009 ; IPCC 2013). Relative to more easily sampled locations, there is a dearth of in situ observations of aerosols, clouds, and precipitation over the SO

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